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Institute of Bioengineering

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Prof Norman Fenton

Professor of Risk Information Management

Department School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science
Email n.fenton@qmul.ac.uk
Homepage https://www.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/~norman/

IoB Highlights

Since 2017, Norman has led on the EPRSC Digital Health Technologies Project PAMBAYESIAN and the Leverhulme Trust project CAUSAL-DYNAMICS.  Norman has published 7 books and over 240 refereed articles and has provided consulting to many major companies world-wide. He is an Affiliated Professor to the University of Haifa, Israel as well as being a Chartered Engineer, a Chartered Mathematician and is a Fellow of the British Computer Society.

Research Keywords

Risk Information Management, Risk management for critical systems, Quantitative risk assessment, Probability theory and Bayesian reasoning

Research Interests

Norman Fenton is Professor of Risk Information Management at Queen Mary and is also a Director of Agena, specialising in risk management for critical systems. Norman is a mathematician by training who now works on quantitative risk assessment. Norman has a special interest in raising public awareness of the importance of probability theory and Bayesian reasoning. In March 2015 he presented the award-winning BBC documentary Climate Change by Numbers.

Since 2017, Norman has led on the EPRSC Digital Health Technologies Project PAMBAYESIAN and the Leverhulme Trust project CAUSAL-DYNAMICS.  Norman has published 7 books and over 240 refereed articles and has provided consulting to many major companies world-wide. He is an Affiliated Professor to the University of Haifa, Israel as well as being a Chartered Engineer, a Chartered Mathematician and is a Fellow of the British Computer Society.

2019

Daley B, Hitman G, Fenton N and McLachlan S (2019). Assessment of the methodological quality of local clinical practice guidelines on the identification and management of gestational diabetes. Bmj Open  vol. 9, (6) e027285-e027285. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027285

Fenton N, Lagnado D, Dahlman C and Neil M (2019). The Opportunity Prior: A proof-based prior for criminal cases. Oxford University Press (Oup)  Law, Probability and Risk  10.1093/lpr/mgz007

McLachlan S, Dube K, Johnson O, Buchanan D, Potts HWW, Gallagher T and Fenton N (2019). A framework for analysing learning health systems: Are we removing the most impactful barriers? Learning Health Systems  10.1002/lrh2.10189

Fenton N, Neil M, Yet B and Lagnado D (2019). Analyzing the Simonshaven Case Using Bayesian Networks. Top Cogn Sci  10.1111/tops.12417

FENTON NE, DE ZOETE J, NOGUCHI T and Lagnado D (2019). Resolving the so-called ?probabilistic paradoxes in legal reasoning? with Bayesian Networks. Science and Justice  10.1016/j.scijus.2019.03.003

Pilditch TD, Fenton N and Lagnado D (2019). The Zero-Sum Fallacy in Evidence Evaluation. Psychol Sci  vol. 30, (2) 250-260. 10.1177/0956797618818484

FENTON NE, NEIL M and NOGUCHI T (2019). An extension to the noisy-OR function to resolve the ?explaining away? deficiency for practical Bayesian network problem. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  Ieee Transactions On Knowledge and Data Engineering  10.1109/TKDE.2019.2891680

Neil M, Fenton N, Lagnado D and Gill RD (2019). Modelling competing legal arguments using Bayesian model comparison and averaging. Artificial Intelligence and Law  10.1007/s10506-019-09250-3

Neil M, Fenton N, Osman M and Lagnado D (2019). Causality, the critical but often ignored component guiding us through a world of uncertainties in risk assessment. Journal of Risk Research  10.1080/13669877.2019.1604564

2018

FENTON NE, NOGUCHI T and NEIL M (2018). Addressing the Practical Limitations of Noisy-OR using Conditional Inter-causal Anti-Correlation with Ranked Nodes. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  Ieee Transactions On Knowledge and Data Engineering  10.1109/TKDE.2018.2873314

OSMAN M, FENTON NE, Pilditch T, Lagnado D and NEIL M (2018). Who do we trust on social policy interventions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology  10.1080/01973533.2018.1469986

Osman M, Fenton N, Pilditch T, Lagnado D and Neil M (2018). Whom Do We Trust on Social Policy Interventions? Basic and Applied Social Psychology  10.1080/01973533.2018.1469986

MCLACHLAN S, Potts HWW, Dube K, Buchanan D, Lean S, Gallagher T, Johnson O, DALEY B, Marsh W and FENTON N (2018). The Heimdall framework for supporting characterisation of learning health systems. Bcs Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics  vol. 25, (2) 10.14236/jhi.v25i2.996

CONSTANTINOU AC and FENTON N (2018). Things to know about Bayesian networks. Royal Statistical Society  Significance  10.1111/j.1740-9713.2018.01126.x

FENTON NE (2018). Evidence based decision making turns knowledge into power. Eu Research  38-39.

YET B, NEIL M, FENTON N, CONSTANTINOU AC and DEMENTIEV E (2018). An Improved Method for Solving Hybrid Influence Diagrams. Elsevier  International Journal of Approximate Reasoning  10.1016/j.ijar.2018.01.006

McLachlan S, Dube K, Buchanan D, Lean S, Johnson O, Potts H, Gallagher T, Marsh W and Fenton N (2018). Learning Health Systems: The research community awareness challenge. J Innov Health Inform  vol. 25, (1) 10.14236/jhi.v25i1.981

FENTON NE and NEIL M (2018). Lawnmowers versus terrorists: A highly misleading view of risk. Royal Statistical Society  Significance  vol. 15, (1) 12-15. 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2018.01104.x

Yet B, Constantinou A, Fenton N and Neil M (2018). Expected Value of Partial Perfect Information in Hybrid Models Using Dynamic Discretization. Ieee Access  vol. 6, 7802-7817. 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2799527

FENTON NE and NEIL M (2018). Are lawnmowers a greater risk than terrorists?

2017

CONSTANTINOU AC and Fenton N (2017). The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks. Public Library of Science (Plos)  Plos One  vol. 12, (6) 10.1371/journal.pone.0179297

CONSTANTINOU AC and Fenton NORMAN (2017). Towards Smart-Data: Improving predictive accuracy in long-term football team performance. Elsevier  Knowledge-Based Systems  10.1016/j.knosys.2017.03.005

CONSTANTINOU AC and Fenton N (2017). Improving predictive accuracy using Smart-Data: The case of football teams? evolving performance. Elsevier  Knowledge-Based Systems  10.1016/j.knosys.2017.01.015

2016

Fenton N, Neil M, Lagnado D, William M, Yet B and CONSTANTINOU AC (2016). How to model mutually exclusive events based on independent causal pathways in Bayesian network models. Knowledge-Based Systems  10.1016/j.knosys.2016.09.012

Zhou Y, Hospedales TM and Fenton N (2016). When and Where to Transfer for Bayes Net Parameter Learning. Expert Syst Appl  vol. 55, 361-373. 10.1016/j.eswa.2016.02.011

FENTON NE, neil M and Berger D (2016). Bayes and the Law. Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application  vol. 3, 51-77. 10.1146/annurev-statistics-041715-033428

FENTON NE, Smit N, Lagnado D and Morgan R (2016). Using Bayesian networks to guide the assessment of new evidence in an appeal case. Springer  Crime Science  vol. 5, (9) 10.1186/s40163-016-0057-6

FENTON NE, Zhou Y and Zhu C (2016). An Empirical Study of Bayesian Network Parameter Learning with Monotonic Influence Constraints. Elsevier  Decision Support Systems  10.1016/j.dss.2016.05.001

Yet B, CONSTANTINOU AC, Fenton N, Neil M, Luedeling E and Shepherd K (2016). A Bayesian Network Framework for Project Cost, Benefit and Risk Analysis with an Agricultural Development Case Study. Expert Systems With Applications  10.1016/j.eswa.2016.05.005

CONSTANTINOU AC, FENTON N and NEIL M (2016). Integrating expert knowledge with data in Bayesian networks: Preserving data-driven expectations when the expert variables remain unobserved. Expert Systems With Applications  10.1016/j.eswa.2016.02.050

Constantinou AC, Fenton N, Marsh W and Radlinski L (2016). From complex questionnaire and interviewing data to intelligent Bayesian network models for medical decision support. Artif Intell Med  vol. 67, 75-93. 10.1016/j.artmed.2016.01.002

Constantinou AC, Yet B, Fenton N, Neil M and Marsh W (2016). Value of information analysis for interventional and counterfactual Bayesian networks in forensic medical sciences. Artif Intell Med  vol. 66, 41-52. 10.1016/j.artmed.2015.09.002

Constantinou AC, Yet B, Fenton N, Neil M and Marsh W (2016). Value of information analysis for interventional and counterfactual Bayesian networks in forensic medical sciences. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine  vol. 66, 41-52. 10.1016/j.artmed.2015.09.002

2015

Constantinou AC, Freestone M, Marsh W, Fenton NE and Coid J (2015). Risk assessment and risk management of violent re-offending among prisoners. Expert Systems With Applications  vol. 42, (21) 10.1016/j.eswa.2015.05.025

Shepherd K, Hubbard D, Fenton N, Claxton K, Luedeling E and de Leeuw J (2015). Policy: Development goals should enable decision-making. Nature  vol. 523, (7559) 152-154. 10.1038/523152a

Shepherd K, Hubbard D, Fenton N, Claxton K, Luedeling E and de Leeuw J (2015). Policy: Development goals should enable decision-making. Nature  vol. 523, (7559) 152-154. 10.1038/523152a

FENTON NE (2015). Moving from big data and machine learning to smart data and causal modelling: a simple example from consumer research and marketing. 10.13140/RG.2.1.3292.8166

de Zoete J, Sjerps M, Lagnado D and Fenton N (2015). Modelling crime linkage with Bayesian networks. Sci Justice  vol. 55, (3) 209-217. 10.1016/j.scijus.2014.11.005

de Zoete J, Sjerps M, Lagnado D and Fenton N (2015). Modelling crime linkage with Bayesian networks. Science and Justice  vol. 55, (3) 209-217. 10.1016/j.scijus.2014.11.005

2014

Fenton N (2014). Assessing evidence and testing appropriate hypotheses. Sci Justice  vol. 54, (6) 502-504. 10.1016/j.scijus.2014.10.007

Fenton N and Bieman J (2014). Software Metrics A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition. Crc Press 

Lin P, Neil M and Fenton NE (2014). Risk Aggregation in the presence of Discrete Causally Connected Random Variables. Annals of Actuarial Science  vol. 8, (2) 298-319. 10.1017/S1748499514000098

Fenton N, Lagnado D, Hsu A, Berger D and Neil M (2014). Response to on the use of the likelihood ratio for forensic evaluation: response to Fenton et al.. Sci Justice  vol. 54, (4) 319-320. 10.1016/j.scijus.2014.05.005

Yet B, Perkins Z, Fenton N, Tai N and Marsh W (2014). Not just data: a method for improving prediction with knowledge. J Biomed Inform  vol. 48, 28-37. 10.1016/j.jbi.2013.10.012

Fenton NE and Neil M (2014). Decision Support Software for Probabilistic Risk Assessment Using Bayesian Networks. Ieee Explore  Ieee Software  vol. 31, (2) 21-26. 10.1109/MS.2014.32

Zhou Y, Fenton N and Neil M (2014). Bayesian network approach to multinomial parameter learning using data and expert judgments. Elsevier/Science Direct  International Journal of Approximate Reasoning  vol. 55, 1252-1268. 10.1016/j.ijar.2014.02.008

Fenton NE, Neil M and Hsu A (2014). Calculating and understanding the value of any type of match evidence when there are potential testing errors. Springer Link  Artificial Intelligence and Law  vol. 22, (1) 1-28. 10.1007/s10506-013-9147-x

Yet B, Perkins Z, Fenton N, Tai N and Marsh W (2014). Not just data: A method for improving prediction with knowledge. Journal of Biomedical Informatics  vol. 48, 28-37. 10.1016/j.jbi.2013.10.012

Constantinou AC, Fenton NE and Hunter Pollock LJ (2014). Bayesian networks for unbiased assessment of referee bias in Association Football. Psychology of Sport and Exercise  vol. 15, (5) 538-547. 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.05.009

Fenton N, Berger D, Lagnado D, Neil M and Hsu A (2014). When 'neutral' evidence still has probative value (with implications from the Barry George Case). Science and Justice  vol. 54, (4) 274-287. 10.1016/j.scijus.2013.07.002

Zhou Y, Fenton N and Neil M (2014). An extended MPL-C model for Bayesian network parameter learning with exterior constraints. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformat  vol. 8754, 581-596.

2013

Constantinou AC, Fenton NE and Neil M (2013). Profiting from an inefficient association football gambling market: Prediction, risk and uncertainty using Bayesian networks. Knowledge-Based Systems  vol. 50, 60-86. 10.1016/j.knosys.2013.05.008

FENTON NE, Neil M and Lagnado D (2013). A General Structure for Legal Arguments About Evidence Using Bayesian Networks. Wiley Online Library  Cognitive Science  vol. 37, (1) 61-102. 10.1111/cogs.12004

Constantinou A and FENTON NE (2013). Determining the level of ability of football teams by dynamic ratings based on the relative discrepancies in scores between adversaries. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports  vol. 9, (1) 37-50. 10.1515/jqas-2012-0036

Fenton N, Berger D, Lagnado D, Neil M and Hsu A (2013). When 'neutral' evidence still has probative value (with implications from the Barry George Case). Science and Justice  10.1016/j.scijus.2013.07.002

Constantinou A and Fenton N (2013). PROFITING FROM ARBITRAGE AND ODDS BIASES OF THE EUROPEAN FOOTBALL GAMBLING MARKET. Journal of Gambling Business and Economics  vol. 7, (2) 41-70.

2012

Constantinou A, FENTON NE and Neil M (2012). pi-football: A Bayesian network model for forecasting Association Football match outcomes. Elsevier  Knowledge Based Systems  vol. 36, 322-339. 10.1016/j.knosys.2012.07.008

Neil M, Chen X and Fenton NE (2012). Optimizing the Calculation of Conditional Probability Tables in Hybrid Bayesian Networks using Binary Factorization. Ieee  Ieee Transactions On Knowledge and Data Engineering  vol. 7, (24) 1306-1312. 10.1109/TKDE.2011.87

FENTON NE, Lagnado D and Neil M (2012). Legal idioms: a framework for evidential reasoning. Taylor & Francis Online  Argument and Computation  vol. 4, (1) 46-63. 10.1080/19462166.2012.682656

Constantinou A and FENTON NE (2012). Solving the problem of inadequate scoring rules for assessing probabilistic football forecasting models. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports  vol. 8, (1) 10.1515/1559-0410.1418

FENTON NE and Neil M (2012). Risk Assessment with Bayesian Networks. Crc Press 

FENTON NE (2012). A simple story illustrating why pure machine learning (without expert input) may be doomed to fail and totally unnecessary.

Fenton N and Neil M (2012). Risk assessment and decision analysis with bayesian networks. 10.1201/b21982

2011

Fenton N (2011). Science and law: Improve statistics in court. Nature  vol. 479, (7371) 36-37. 10.1038/479036a

FENTON N (2011). Rational software developers as pathological code hackers. The Dark Side of Software Engineering: Evil On Computing Projects , Editors: Rost J and Glass RL. Wiley-Ieee Computer Society Press  10.1002/9780470909959.ch12

FENTON NE and Neil M (2011). Avoiding Legal Fallacies in Practice Using Bayesian Networks. Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy  vol. 36, 114-150.

FENTON NE and Neil M (2011). The use of Bayes' and causal modelling in decision making, uncertainty and risk. Upgrade, The Journal of Cepis (Council of European Professional Informatics Societies)  vol. 12, (5) 10-21.

FENTON NE and Neil M (2011). Risk Assessment with Bayesian Networks. Chapman and Hall 

2010

Fenton N and Neil M (2010). Comparing risks of alternative medical diagnosis using Bayesian arguments. J Biomed Inform  vol. 43, (4) 485-495. 10.1016/j.jbi.2010.02.004

Marquez D, Neil M and Fenton N (2010). Improved reliability modeling using Bayesian networks and dynamic discretization. Reliab Eng Syst Safe  vol. 95, (4) 412-425. 10.1016/j.ress.2009.11.012

Neil M, Marquez D and Fenton N (2010). Improved Reliability Modeling using Bayesian Networks and Dynamic Discretization. Journal of Reliability Engineering and System Safety  vol. 95, (4) 412-425. 10.1016/j.ress.2009.11.012

Fenton NE, Hearty P, Neil M and Radli¿ski ¿ (2010). Software project and quality modelling using Bayesian networks. Artificial Intelligence Applications For Improved Software Engineering Development: New Prospects , Editors: Meziane F and Vadera S. Igi Global  10.4018/978-1-60566-758-4

2009

Hearty P, Fenton N, Marquez D and Neil M (2009). Predicting Project Velocity in XP Using a Learning Dynamic Bayesian Network Model. Ieee T Software Eng  vol. 35, (1) 124-137. 10.1109/TSE.2008.76

2008

Marquez D, Neil M and Fenton N (2008). Solving dynamic fault trees using a new hybrid Bayesian network inference algorithm. 2008 Mediterranean Conference On Control and Automation - Conference Proceedings, Med'08  609-614. 10.1109/MED.2008.4602222

Fenton N, Neil M, Marsh W, Hearty P, Radlinski L and Krause P (2008). On the effectiveness of early life cycle defect prediction with Bayesian Nets. Empirical Software Engineering  vol. 13, (5) 499-537. 10.1007/s10664-008-9072-x

Neil M, Tailor M, Marquez D, Fenton N and Hearty P (2008). Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks. Reliab Eng Syst Safe  vol. 93, (7) 933-939. 10.1016/j.ress.2007.03.009

Neil M, Tailor M, Marquez D, Fenton NE and Hearty P (2008). Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks. Reliability Engineering and System Safety  vol. 93, (7) 933-939. 10.1016/j.ress.2007.03.009

FENTON NE, Neil M and Marquez D (2008). Using Bayesian Networks to Predict Software Defects and Reliability. Institution of Mechanical Engineers  Proceedings of The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O, Journal of Risk and Reliability  vol. 222, (4) 701-712. 10.1243/1748006XJRR161

Neil M, Marquez D and Fenton NE (2008). Using Bayesian Networks to Model the Operational Risk to Information Technology Infrastructure in Financial Institutions. Journal of Financial Transformation  vol. 22, 131-138.

2007

Fenton NE, Neil M and Caballero JG (2007). Using ranked nodes to model qualitative judgments in Bayesian Networks. Ieee T Knowl Data En  vol. 19, (10) 1420-1432. 10.1109/TKDE.2007.1068

Fenton NE and Neil M (2007). Managing Risk in the Modern World: Bayesian Networks and the Applications. London Mathematical Society, Knowledge Transfer Report 

Radli¿ski ¿, Fenton NE, Marquez D and Hearty P (2007). Empirical Analysis of Software Defect Types. Information Systems Architecture and Technology: Information Technology and Web Engineering: Models, Concepts & Challenges (Proc  Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroc?Awskiej, Wroc?Aw 

Fenton N, Neil M, Marsh W, Hearty P, Marquez D, Krause P and Mishra R (2007). Predicting software defects in varying development lifecycles using Bayesian nets. Inform Software Tech  vol. 49, (1) 32-43. 10.1016/j.infsof.2006.09.001

Khodakarami V, Fenton N and Neil M (2007). Project Scheduling: Improved approach to incorporate uncertainty using Bayesian Networks. Project Management Journal  vol. 38, 39-49-39-49. 10.1177/875697280703800205

Fenton NE (2007). Making Sense of Probability: Fallacies, Myths and Puzzles. Queen Mary, University of London and Agena Ltd 

Radli¿ski ¿, Fenton NE, Neil M and Marquez D (2007). Modelling Prior Productivity and Defect Rates in a Causal Model for Software Project Risk Assessment. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies  vol. 16, (4A) 256-260.

2006

Fenton N and Neil M (2006). Expert elicitation for reliable system design - Comment. Stat Sci  vol. 21, (4) 451-453. 10.1214/088342306000000510

Fenton N and Neil M (2006). Comment: Expert elicitation for reliable system design. Statistical Science  vol. 21, (4) 451-453. 10.1214/088342306000000529

Joseph A, Fenton NE and Neil M (2006). Predicting football results using Bayesian nets and other machine learning techniques. Knowl-Based Syst  vol. 19, (7) 544-553. 10.1016/j.knosys.2006.04.011

Fenton N and Wang W (2006). Risk and confidence analysis for fuzzy multicriteria decision making. Knowl-Based Syst  vol. 19, (6) 430-437. 10.1016/j.knosys.2006.03.002

FENTON NE (2006). Report of Norman Fenton for the Technology and Construction Court, Reference HT 05 181.

Neil M and FENTON NE (2006). AgenaRisk. Agena Ltd 

Fenton NE, Radlinski L and Neil M (2006). Improved Bayesian Networks for Software Project Risk Assessment Using Dynamic Discretisation. Software Engineering Techniques: Design For Quality (Prceedings of Software Engineering Techniques 2006, Warsaw, Poland, 17-20 O , Editors: Sacha K. Springer, Boston  10.1007/978-0-387-39388-9_14

Neil M, FENTON NE, Krause P and Mishra R (2006). Bayesian networks for software process control. Ieee Transactions On Software Engineering 

2005

Neil M, Fenton N and Tailor M (2005). Using Bayesian networks to model expected and unexpected operational losses. Risk Anal  vol. 25, (4) 963-972. 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2005.00641.x

Fenton NE and Neil M (2005). A Critique of Software Defect Prediction Models. Machine Learning Applications in Software Engineering , Editors: Zhang D and Tsai JJP. World Scientific Publishing Co 

2003

Neil M and FENTON NE (2003). Improved Programme Selection.

Neil M, FENTON NE and Krause P (2003). Software Quality Prediction Using Bayesian Networks. Software Engineering With Computational Intelligence. Khoshgoftaar, Tm (Ed)  Kluwer 

2002

Fenton N, Krause P and Neil M (2002). Software measurement: Uncertainty and causal modeling. Ieee Software  vol. 19, (4) 116-+. 10.1109/MS.2002.1020298

FENTON NE, Neil M and Krause P (2002). Probalistic Modelling for Software Quality Control. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics  vol. 12, (2) 173-188. 10.3166/jancl.12.173-188

2001

Fenton N and Neil M (2001). Making decisions: using Bayesian nets and MCDA. Knowl-Based Syst  vol. 14, (7) 307-325. 10.1016/S0950-7051(00)00071-X

Fenton N (2001). Viewpoint article: Conducting and presenting empirical software engineering. Empirical Software Engineering  vol. 6, (3) 195-200. 10.1023/A:1011449731678

Neil M, Fenton N, Forey S and Harris R (2001). Using Bayesian belief networks to predict the reliability of military vehicles. Comput Control Eng J  vol. 12, (1) 11-20. 10.1049/cce:20010103

FENTON NE (2001). Conducting and Presenting Empirical Software Engineering. Journal of Empirical Software Engineering  vol. 6, (3) 195-200.

2000

Neil M, Fenton N and Nielsen L (2000). Building large-scale Bayesian networks. Knowl Eng Rev  vol. 15, (3) 257-284. 10.1017/S0269888900003039

Fenton NE and Neil M (2000). The Jury Fallacy and the use of Bayesian nets to simplify probabilistic legal arguments. Mathematics Today (Bulletin of The Ima)  vol. 36, (6) 180-187.

1999

Fenton NE and Neil M (1999). Software metrics: successes, failures and new directions. Journal of Systems and Software  vol. 47, (2-3) 149-157. 10.1016/S0164-1212(99)00035-7

Fenton NE and Neil M (1999). A critique of software defect prediction models. Software Engineering, Ieee Transactions On  vol. 25, (5) 675-689. 10.1109/32.815326

Finney K, Fenton N and Fedorec A (1999). Effects of structure on the comprehensibility of formal specifications. Iee Proceedings in Software  vol. 146, (4) 193-202. 10.1049/ip-sen:19990600

1998

Fenton NE and Neil M (1998). A strategy for improving safety related software engineering standards. Software Engineering, Ieee Transactions On  vol. 24, (11) 1002-1013. 10.1109/32.730547

Fenton NE, Littlewood B, Neil M, Strigini L, Sutcliffe A and Wright D (1998). Assessing dependability of safety critical systems using diverse evidence. Iee Proceedings Software  vol. 145, (1) 35-39.

1997

Kitchenham B, Pfleeger SL and Fenton N (1997). Reply To: Comments On towards A Framework Of Software Measurement Validation. Software Engineering, Ieee Transactions On  vol. 23, (3) 189-189. 10.1109/TSE.1997.585507

Fenton NE and Pfleeger SL (1997). Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach (2nd Edition). Pws 

Fenton NE (1997). How to improve safety-critical standards. Safer Systems: Proc 5th Ann Safety Critical Systems Symp , Editors: Redmill F and Anderson T. Springer Verlag 

Ohlsson N and Fenton NE (1997). Let's start testing some basic software hypotheses!

Hall T and Fenton NE (1997). Implementing effective software metrics programs. Software, Ieee  vol. 14, (2) 55-65. 10.1109/52.582975

1996

Schneidewind NF and Fenton N (1996). Point counterpoint: do standards improve quality? Software, Ieee  vol. 13, (1) 22-24. 10.1109/52.476282

Fenton NE (1996). The role of measurement in software safety assessment. Safety and Reliability of Software Based Systems , Editors: Shaw R. Springer Verlag 

Fenton NE (1996). Do standards improve product quality? Ieee Software  vol. 13, (1) 22-24. 10.1109/MS.1996.2

Fenton NE (1996). The empirical basis for software engineering. Software Measurement , Editors: Melton A. International Thomson Computer Press 

Finney K and Fenton NE (1996). Evaluating the effectiveness of using Z: the claims made about CICS and where we go from here. Journal of Systems and Software  vol. 35, (3) 206-219. 10.1016/S0164-1212(96)00122-7

Strigini L and Fenton NE (1996). Rigorously assessing software reliability and safety.

Fenton NE and Melton A (1996). Measurement theory and software measurement. Software Measurement , Editors: Melton A. International Thomson Computer Press 

Bieman JM, Fenton NE, Gustafson DA, Melton A and Ott LM (1996). Fundamental issues in software measurement. Software Measurement , Editors: Melton A. International Thomson Computer Press 

Neil M, Littlewood B and Fenton NE (1996). Applying Bayesian belief networks to systems dependability assessment. Safety-Critical Systems: The Convergence of High Tech and Human Factors; Proceedings of The 4th Safety Critical Systems Symposiu , Editors: Redmill F. Springer Verlag 

1995

Kitchenham B, Pfleeger SL and Fenton N (1995). Towards a framework for software measurement validation. Software Engineering, Ieee Transactions On  vol. 21, (12) 929-944. 10.1109/32.489070

1994

Fenton NE, Pfleeger SL and Glass RL (1994). Science and substance: a challenge to software engineers. Software, Ieee  vol. 11, (4) 86-95. 10.1109/52.300094

Hall T and Fenton NE (1994). Implementing software metrics - the critical success factors. Software Quality Journal  vol. 3, (4) 195-208. 10.1109/52.582975

Fenton NE (1994). Software measurement: a necessary scientific basis. Software Engineering, Ieee Transactions On  vol. 20, (3) 199-206. 10.1109/32.268921

Pfleeger SL, Fenton N and Page S (1994). Evaluating software engineering standards. Computer  vol. 27, (9) 71-79. 10.1109/2.312041

1993

Fenton NE and Hill G (1993). Systems Construction and Analysis: A Mathematical and Logical Approach., Editors: Ince D. McGraw Hill 

Fenton NE, Littlewood B and Page S (1993). Evaluating software engineering standards and methods. Software Engineering: a European Perspective , Editors: Thayer R and McGettrick AD. Ieee Computer Society Press 

Devine C, Fenton NE and Page S (1993). Deficiencies in existing software engineering standards as exposed by SMARTIE. Chapman and Hall 

Fenton NE, Page S and Devine C (1993). Software engineering standards: evaluation and improvements.

Littlewood B, Brocklehurst S, Fenton NE, Mellor P, Page S, Wright D, Dobson J, McDermid J and Gollman D (1993). Towards operational measures of security. Journal of Computer Security  vol. 2, 211-229.

Fenton NE (1993). How effective are software engineering methods? Journal of Systems and Software  vol. 22, (2) 93-100. 10.1016/0164-1212(93)90092-C

Fenton NE (1993). The effectiveness of software engineering methods.

Fenton NE and Page S (1993). Towards the evaluation of software engineering standards. Ieee Computer Society Press 

1992

Bieman J, Fenton NE, Gustafson D, Melton A and Whitty RW (1992). Moving from philosophy to practice in software measurement. Formal Aspects of Software Measurement , Editors: Denvir T, Herman R and Whitty R. Springer Verlag 

Fenton NE (1992). When a software measure is not a measure. Software Engineering Journal  vol. 7, (5) 357-362.

Fenton NE (1992). Software measurement: why a formal approach? Springer Verlag 

1991

Fenton NE and Kitchenham BA (1991). Validating software measures. J Software Testing, Verification & Reliability  vol. 1, (2) 27-42. 10.1002/stvr.4370010204

Fenton NE and Littlewood B (1991). Software Reliability and Metrics. Elsevier 

Fenton NE and Whitty RW (1991). Program structures: some new characterizations. J Computer and System Sciences  vol. 43, (3) 467-483. 10.1016/0022-0000(91)90025-Z

Fenton NE (1991). Software Metrics: A Rigorous Approach. Chapman Hall 

Fenton NE (1991). The mathematics of complexity in computing and software engineering. Oxford University Press 

1990

Fenton NE and Melton A (1990). Deriving structurally based software measures. Journal of Systems and Software  vol. 12, (3) 177-187. 10.1016/0164-1212(90)90038-N

Fenton NE (1990). Software metrics: theory, tools and validation. Software Engineering Journal  vol. 5, (1) 65-78.

Baker AL, Bieman JM, Fenton NE, Gustafson D and Melton A (1990). A philosophy for software measurement. Journal of Systems and Software  vol. 12, (3) 277-281. 10.1016/0164-1212(90)90050-V

Bush M and Fenton NE (1990). Software measurement: a conceptual framework. Journal of Systems and Software  vol. 12, (3) 223-231. 10.1016/0164-1212(90)90043-L

1988

Fenton NE and Mole D (1988). A note on the use of Z for flowgraph decomposition. Information & Software Technology  vol. 30, (7) 432-437. 10.1016/0950-5849(88)90040-7

1987

Fenton NE and Kaposi AA (1987). Metrics and software structure. Information & Software Technology  vol. 29, (6) 301-320. 10.1016/0950-5849(87)90029-2

1986

Fenton NE and Whitty RW (1986). Axiomatic approach to software metrication through program decomposition. The Computer Journal  vol. 29, (4) 329-339. 10.1093/comjnl/29.4.330

1985

Whitty RW, Fenton NE and Kaposi AA (1985). Structured programming: a tutorial guide. Iee Software and Microsystems  vol. 3, (3) 54-65.

Whitty RW and Fenton NE (1985). An axiomatic approach to systems complexity. Designing For Systems Maturity  Pergamon Infotech Ltd. 

Whitty RW, Fenton NE and Kaposi AA (1985). A rigorous approach to structural analysis and metrication of software. Iee Software and Microsystems  vol. 4, (1) 2-16.

Fenton NE, Whitty RW and Kaposi AA (1985). A generalised mathematical theory of structured programming. Theoretical Computer Science  vol. 36, 145-171. 10.1016/0304-3975(85)90040-4

1984

Fenton NE (1984). Matroid Representations: an algebraic treatment. Quart. J. Math. Oxford  vol. 35, (3) 263-280. 10.1093/qmath/35.3.263

Fenton NE (1984). Representations of projective geometries. European J. Combinatorics  vol. 5, 123-126.

1983

Fenton NE (1983). Characterisation of Atomic Matroids. Quart. J. Math. Oxford  vol. 34, (2) 49-60. 10.1093/qmath/34.1.49

1982

Fenton NE and Vamos P (1982). Matroid interpretation of maximal k-arcs in projective spaces. Rend. Di Matematica  vol. 3 (2), Serie VII, 573-580.

1981

FENTON N (1981). Representation of Matroids.

Fenton NE (1981). Representation of Matroids (PhD Thesis). Sheffield University, Mathematics 

2003

NEIL M and Fenton NE (2003). Improved programme selection. WO 03/090466 A2. http://www.dcs.qmul.ac.uk/~norman/papers/TVSupreme03090466.pdf

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