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Institute of Bioengineering

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Prof Steve Greenwald

Professor of Cardiovascular Mechanics

Department Blizard Institute
Email s.e.greenwald@qmul.c.uk
Homepage http://www.qmul.ac.uk/blizard/staff/centre-for-cell-biology-and-cutaneous-research/items/steve-greenwald.html

Research Interests

The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse, but during the last decade, the importance of mechanical factors in their pathogenesis has become widely recognised. For instance, changing stiffness of the large arteries is a powerful prognostic indicator of mortality and morbidity for hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease. Our research activities are aimed at a better understanding of the relationship between arterial composition, structure and mechanical function and range from mathematical modelling of the shear waves resulting from disturbed blood flow, through investigation of impaired vascular function in patients with diabetes and thalassaemia, to understanding how fatigue failure of elastin in adult life contributes to hypertension associated with impaired growth in-utero. On the applied side, recent work has been concerned with the development of novel methods for the measurement of arterial function including the activity of matrix metallo proteases, investigating the haemodynamic properties of novel stent/grafts and the non-invasive and indeed non-contact measurement of arterial stiffness. These ideas are propagated to students undertaking the intercalated degree in experimental pathology for whom we provide all the teaching in the CV Pathophysiology module.

Centre:  Centre for Cell Biology and Cutaneous Research

Key Publications

Phababpha S, Kukongviriyapan U, Pakdeechote P, Senggunprai L, Kukongviriyapan V, Settasatian C, Tatsanavivat P, Intharaphet P, Senthong V, Komanasin N, Settasatian N and Greenwald SE (2013). Association of arterial stiffness with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1333049 and metabolic risk factors. Cardiovascular Diabetology  vol. 12, 10.1186/1475-2840-12-93

Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R and Greenwald S (2013). Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability. Pubmed  Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 18, (6) 10.1117/1.JBO.18.6.061205

Sun Y, Papin C, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R, Greenwald S and Hu S (2012). Use of ambient light in remote photoplethysmographic systems: comparison between a high-performance camera and a low-cost webcam. Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 17, (3) 10.1117/1.JBO.17.3.037005

Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Greenwald S, Chambers J and Zhu Y (2011). Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise. Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 16, (7) 10.1117/1.3602852

Timmins LH, Wu QF, Yeh AT, Moore JE and Greenwald SE (2010). Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media. Am J Physiol-Heart C  vol. 298, (5) H1537-H1545. 10.1152/ajpheart.00891.2009

2018

Gutiérrez-Arzapalo PY, Rodríguez-Rodríguez P, Ramiro-Cortijo D, López de Pablo ÁL, López-Giménez MR, Condezo-Hoyos L, Greenwald SE, González MDC and Arribas SM (2018). Role of fetal nutrient restriction and postnatal catch-up growth on structural and mechanical alterations of rat aorta. J Physiol  vol. 596, (23) 5791-5806. 10.1113/JP275030

Senaphan K, Sangartit W, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Pannangpetch P, Thawornchinsombut S, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan U (2018). Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet. Eur J Nutr  vol. 57, (1) 219-230. 10.1007/s00394-016-1311-0

Zhang Y, Jiang Z, Qi L, Xu L, Sun X, Chu X, Liu Y, Zhang T and Greenwald SE (2018). Evaluation of Cardiorespiratory Function During Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Untreated Hypertensive and Healthy Subjects. Front Physiol  vol. 9, 10.3389/fphys.2018.01590

Zhang Y, Qi L, Xu L, Sun X, Liu W, Zhou S, van de Vosse F and Greenwald SE (2018). Effects of exercise modalities on central hemodynamics, arterial stiffness and cardiac function in cardiovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Plos One  vol. 13, (7) 10.1371/journal.pone.0200829

2017

Godinho MSC, Thorpe CT, Greenwald SE and Screen HRC (2017). Elastin is Localised to the Interfascicular Matrix of Energy Storing Tendons and Becomes Increasingly Disorganised With Ageing. Scientific Reports  vol. 7, (1) 10.1038/s41598-017-09995-4

2016

Godinho MSC, Screen HRC, Greenwald SE and Thorpe CT (2016). Elastin is more abundant in energy storing tendons and is localised to the tendon interfascicular matrix. International Journal of Experimental Pathology  vol. 97, (6) A3-A4.

Forouhi NG, Menon RK, Sharp SJ, Mannan N, Timms PM, Martineau AR, Rickard AP, Boucher BJ, Chowdhury TA, Griffiths CJ, Greenwald SE, Griffin SJ and Hitman GA (2016). Effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk among people at risk of type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab  vol. 18, (4) 392-400. 10.1111/dom.12625

2015

Brewin MP, Birch MJ, Mehta DJ, Reeves JW, Shaw S, Kruse C, Whiteman JR, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Banks HT and Greenwald SE (2015). Characterisation of Elastic and Acoustic Properties of an Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material. Ann Biomed Eng  vol. 43, (10) 2587-2596. 10.1007/s10439-015-1294-7

Senaphan K, Kukongviriyapan U, Sangartit W, Pakdeechote P, Pannangpetch P, Prachaney P, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan V (2015). Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet. Nutrients  vol. 7, (8) 6446-6464. 10.3390/nu7085283

2014

Sangartit W, Kukongviriyapan U, Donpunha W, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Surawattanawan P and Greenwald SE (2014). Tetrahydrocurcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Hypertension, Raised Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Remodeling in Mice., Editors: Gupta S. Public Library of Science  Plos One  vol. 9, (12) e114908-e114908. 10.1371/journal.pone.0114908

Boonla O, Kukongviriyapan U, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Pannangpetch P, Prachaney P and Greenwald SE (2014). Curcumin improves endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in 2K-1C hypertensive rats by raising nitric oxide availability and reducing oxidative stress. Nitric Oxide  vol. 42, 44-53. 10.1016/j.niox.2014.09.001

Banks HT, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Shaw S, Whiteman J, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2014). MODEL VALIDATION FOR A NONINVASIVE ARTERIAL STENOSIS DETECTION PROBLEM. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering  vol. 11, (3) 427-448. 10.3934/mbe.2014.11.427

Gardiner HM, Matsui H, Roughton M, Greenwald SE, Diemert A, Taylor MJO and Hecher K (2014). Cardiac function in 10-year-old twins following different fetal therapies for twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology  vol. 43, (6) 652-657. 10.1002/uog.13279

Banks HT, Birch MJ, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Maischak M, Shaw S and Whiteman JR (2014). High-order space-time finite element schemes for acoustic and viscodynamic wave equations with temporal decoupling. International Journal For Numerical Methods in Engineering  vol. 98, (2) 131-156. 10.1002/nme.4631

Brewin MP, Srodon PD, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2014). Carotid atherosclerotic plaque characterisation by measurement of ultrasound sound speed in vitro at high frequency, 20 MHz. Ultrasonics  vol. 54, (2) 428-441. 10.1016/j.ultras.2013.04.015

Louis-Auguste J, Greenwald S, Simuyandi M, Soko R, Banda R and Kelly P (2014). High dose multiple micronutrient supplementation improves villous morphology in environmental enteropathy without HIV enteropathy: results from a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial in Zambian adults. Bmc Gastroenterol  vol. 14, 10.1186/1471-230X-14-15

Shcherbakova DA, Papadacci C, Swillens A, Caenen A, De Bock S, Saey V, Chiers K, Tanter M, Greenwald SE, Pernot M and Segers P (2014). Supersonic shear wave imaging to assess arterial nonlinear behavior and anisotropy: Proof of principle via ex vivo testing of the horse Aorta. Advances in Mechanical Engineering  vol. 2014, 10.1155/2014/272586

2013

Hoonjan B, Dulai R, Ahmed Z, Lucey A, Twycross-Lewis R, Morrissey D and Greenwald SE (2013). Comparing the effect of moderate intensity exercise on arterial stiffness in resistance trained athletes, endurance trained athletes and sedentary controls: A cross-sectional observational study. Artery Research  vol. 7, (3-4) 216-221. 10.1016/j.artres.2013.08.002

Rachev A, Greenwald S and Shazly T (2013). Are Geometrical and Structural Variations Along the Length of the Aorta Governed by a Principle of Optimal Mechanical Operation? Journal of Biomechanical Engineering-Transactions of The Asme  vol. 135, (8) 10.1115/1.4024664

Phababpha S, Kukongviriyapan U, Pakdeechote P, Senggunprai L, Kukongviriyapan V, Settasatian C, Tatsanavivat P, Intharaphet P, Senthong V, Komanasin N, Settasatian N and Greenwald SE (2013). Association of arterial stiffness with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1333049 and metabolic risk factors. Cardiovascular Diabetology  vol. 12, 10.1186/1475-2840-12-93

Louis-Auguste J, Greenwald S, Banda R and Kelly P (2013). MULTIPLE MICRONUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES SMALL BOWEL HISTOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE AND ABSORPTIVE AREA IN ZAMBIAN ADULTS. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism  vol. 63, 1354-1354.

Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R and Greenwald S (2013). Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability. Pubmed  Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 18, (6) 10.1117/1.JBO.18.6.061205

Banks HT, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Shaw S, Whiteman JR, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2013). Material parameter estimation and hypothesis testing on a 1D viscoelastic stenosis model: Methodology. De Gruyter  Journal of Inverse and III-Posed Problems  vol. 21, (1) 25-57. 10.1515/jip-2012-0081

2012

Dulai R, Perry M, Twycross-Lewis R, Morrissey D, Atzeni F and Greenwald S (2012). The effect of tumor necrosis factor-? antagonists on arterial stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis: a literature review. Semin Arthritis Rheum  vol. 42, (1) 1-8. 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2012.02.002

Gardiner HM, Barlas A, Matsui H, Diemart A, Taylor MJO, Preece J, Gordon F, GREENWALD SE and Hecher K (2012). Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. , 2012. 3: 182 - 189. Cambridge Journals Online  Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease  vol. 3, (3) 182-189. 10.1017/S204017441200013X

Sun Y, Papin C, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R, Greenwald S and Hu S (2012). Use of ambient light in remote photoplethysmographic systems: comparison between a high-performance camera and a low-cost webcam. Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 17, (3) 10.1117/1.JBO.17.3.037005

Detchaporn P, Kukongviriyapan U, Prawan A, Jetsrisuparb A, Greenwald S and Kukongviriyapan V (2012). Altered Vascular Function, Arterial Stiffness, and Antioxidant Gene Responses in Pediatric Thalassemia Patients. Springer Verlag  10.1007/s00246-012-0225-8

Sun Y, Papin C, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R, GREENWALD SE and Hu S (2012). Use of ambient light in remote photoplethysmographic systems: comparison between a high-performance camera and a low-cost webcam. - 037005-10. Spie Digital Library  Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 17, (3) 037005-1-037005-10. 10.1117/1.JBO.17.3.037005

Detchaporn P, Kukongviriyapan U, Prawan A, Jetsrisuparb A, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan V (2012). Altered vascular function, arterial stiffness, and antioxidant gene responses in pediatric thalassemia patients. Springer Link  Pediatric Cardiology  vol. 33, (7) 1054-1060. 10.1007/s00246-012-0225-8

Gardiner HM, Barlas A, Matsui H, Diemert A, Taylor MJO, Preece J, Gordon F, Greenwald SE and Hecher K (2012). Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Cambridge Journals Online  Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease  vol. 3, (3) 182-189. 10.1017/S204017441200013X

2011

Hoonjan B, Dulai R, Ahmed M, Lucey A, Morrissey D, Twycross-Lewis R and Greenwald S (2011). The effect of moderate intensity exercise on arterial stiffness in resistance trained athletes, endurance trained athletes and sedentary controls: a cross-sectional observational study. Br J Sports Med  vol. 45, (15) A7-A8. 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090606.24

Cohen RD, Brown CL, Nickols C, Levey P, Boucher BJ, Greenwald SE and Wang W (2011). Inbuilt mechanisms for overcoming functional problems inherent in hepatic microlobular structure. Comput Math Methods Med  vol. 2011, 10.1155/2011/185845

Yu S, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Zheng J, Greenwald SE, Chambers J and Zhu Y (2011). Detection of physiological changes after exercise via a remote opto-physiological imaging system. 10.1117/12.872723

Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Greenwald S, Chambers J and Zhu Y (2011). Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise. Journal of Biomedical Optics  vol. 16, (7) 10.1117/1.3602852

2010

Timmins LH, Wu QF, Yeh AT, Moore JE and Greenwald SE (2010). Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media. Am J Physiol-Heart C  vol. 298, (5) H1537-H1545. 10.1152/ajpheart.00891.2009

2007

Greenwald SE (2007). Ageing of the conduit arteries. J Pathol  vol. 211, (2) 157-172. 10.1002/path.2101

2006

Screen HRC, Chhaya VH, Greenwald SE, Bader DL, Lee DA and Shelton JC (2006). The influence of swelling and matrix degradation on the microstructural integrity of tendon. Acta Biomaterialia  vol. 2, (5) 505-513. 10.1016/j.actbio.2006.05.008

Janzen J, Leitritz M, Janzen K and Greenwald S (2006). The effect of in utero growth retardation on the structure and composition of the cardiovascular system. Perfusion  vol. 19, (4) 130-142. 10.1016/j.mee.2005.10.038

GREENWALD SE, Screen HRC, Shelton JA, Bader DA, Lee DA and Chhaya VH (2006). Tendon Microstructure and Mechanical Characteristics. Acta Biomateriala  vol. 2, 505-513.

2004

Greenwald SE (2004). Modelling emboli with floating fir cones. Bmj  vol. 329, (7480) 1433-1434. 10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1433

Kelly P, Menzies I, Crane R, Zulu I, Nickols C, Feakins R, Mwansa J, Mudenda V, Katubulushi M, Greenwald S and Farthing M (2004). Responses of small intestinal architecture and function over time to environmental factors in a tropical population. Am J Trop Med Hyg  vol. 70, (4) 412-419. 10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.412

2003

Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Residual strains in conduit arteries (vol 36, pg 661, 2003). J Biomech  vol. 36, (11) 1751-1751. 10.1006/S0021-9290(02)00444-X

Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Erratum: Residual strains in conduit arteries (Journal of Biomechanics (2003) 36 (661-670)). Journal of Biomechanics  vol. 36, (11) 10.1016/S0021-9290(03)00180-5

Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Residual strains in conduit arteries (vol 36, pg 661, 2003). J Biomech  vol. 36, (7) 1067-1067. 10.1016/S0021-9290(03)00111-8

Rachev A and Greenwald SE (2003). Residual strains in conduit arteries. J Biomech  vol. 36, (5) 661-670. 10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00444-X

Gardiner HM, Taylor MJO, Karatza A, Vanderheyden T, Huber A, Greenwald SE, Fisk NM and Hecher K (2003). Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: the influence of intrauterine laser photocoagulation on arterial distensibility in childhood. Circulation  vol. 107, (14) 1906-1911. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000060543.64250.80

GREENWALD SE and Brown AG (2003). Histology and Staining. Biomedical Technology and Devices Handbook. Moore Je, Zouridakis (Eds)  Crc Press 

2002

McMahon AC, Greenwald SE, Dodd SM, Hurst MJ and Raine AEG (2002). Prolonged calcium transients and myocardial remodelling in early experimental uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant  vol. 17, (5) 759-764. 10.1093/ndt/17.5.759

Kelly P, Menzies I, Crane R, Zulu I, Nickols C, Feakins R, Mudenda V, Katubulushi M, Greenwald S and Farthing M (2002). Tropical enteropathy: A dynamic response to environmental influences. Gut  vol. 50, A91-A91.

Greenwald SE (2002). Pulse pressure and arterial elasticity. Qjm  vol. 95, (2) 107-112. 10.1093/qjmed/95.2.107

Loukogeorgakis S, Dawson R, Phillips N, Martyn CN and Greenwald SE (2002). Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method. Physiological Measurement  vol. 23, (3) 581-596. 10.1088/0967-3334/23/3/309

2001

Richardson G, Moore AR, Greenwald SE, Benjamin N and Rothman MT (2001). A copper-containing polymer coating generates nitric oxide to inhibit platelet aggregation without inducing inflammation: A possible stent coating? Am J Cardiol  vol. 88, (5A) 14G-14G.

Gardiner HM, Taylor MO, Karatza A, Greenwald SE and Hecher K (2001). Fetal determinants of arterial stiffness: a monochorionic twin study. Eur Heart J  vol. 22, 236-236.

Stergiopulos N, Vulliémoz S, Rachev A, Meister JJ and Greenwald SE (2001). Assessing the homogeneity of the elastic properties and composition of the pig aortic media. J Vasc Res  vol. 38, (3) 237-246. 10.1159/000051052

Bose M, Nickols C, Greenwald S, Feakins R, Perrett D and Farthing M (2001). 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in colonic mucosa in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Assessment by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gut  vol. 48, A57-A57.

Sheaff M, Campbell J, Millar J, Feneley M, Greenwald S and Baithun SI (2001). Is angiogenesis related to prognosis in adenocarcinoma of the prostate? J Pathol  vol. 193, 46A-46A.

GREENWALD SE, Hayashi K, Rachev A, Meister J-J and Stergiopulos N (2001). Techniques in the Determination of the Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Laws of Arterial Wallls. Cardiovascular Technques (Biomechanical Systems: Techniques and Applications). Leondes Ct (Ed)  Crc Press 

GREENWALD SE, Meister J-J, Pannatier A, Rachev A and Stergiopulos N (2001). Assessment of mechanical inhomogeneity in the arterial wall by an artery inversion test. Cardiovascular Engineering  vol. 1, 31-36.

2000

Greenwald SE and Berry CL (2000). Improving vascular grafts: the importance of mechanical and haemodynamic properties. J Pathol  vol. 190, (3) 292-299. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(200002)190:3<292::AID-PATH528>3.0.CO;2-S

1997

Berney DM, Desai M, Palmer DJ, Greenwald S, Brown A, Hales CN and Berry CL (1997). The effects of maternal protein deprivation on the fetal rat pancreas: major structural changes and their recuperation. J Pathol  vol. 183, (1) 109-115. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199709)183:1<109::AID-PATH1091>3.0.CO;2-B

Martyn CN and Greenwald SE (1997). Impaired synthesis of elastin in walls of aorta and large conduit arteries during early development as an initiating event in pathogenesis of systemic hypertension. Lancet  vol. 350, (9082) 953-955. 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)10508-0

Greenwald SE, Moore JE, Rachev A, Kane TP and Meister JJ (1997). Experimental investigation of the distribution of residual strains in the artery wall. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering  vol. 119, (4) 438-444. 10.1115/1.2798291

Bertram CD, Gow BS and Greenwald SE (1997). Comparison of different methods for the determination of the true wave propagation coefficient, in rubber tubes and the canine thoracic aorta. Medical Engineering & Physics  vol. 19, (3) 212-222. 10.1016/S1350-4533(96)00073-2

1996

Martyn CN and Greenwald SE (1996). Pulse wave velocity as a marker of vascular disease. Lancet  vol. 348, (9041) 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)66200-9

Badreck-Amoudi A, Patel CK, Kane TP and Greenwald SE (1996). The effect of age on residual strain in the rat aorta. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering  vol. 118, (4) 440-444. 10.1115/1.2796029

1995

Saini A, Berry C and Greenwald S (1995). Effect of age and sex on residual stress in the aorta. J Vasc Res  vol. 32, (6) 398-405. 10.1159/000159115

Martyn CN, Barker DJ, Jespersen S, Greenwald S, Osmond C and Berry C (1995). Growth in utero, adult blood pressure, and arterial compliance. Br Heart J  vol. 73, (2) 116-121. 10.1136/hrt.73.2.116

Vulliemoz S, Stergiopulos N, Greenwald SE, Pannatier A and Meister JJ (1995). Modele a deux couches de la paroi arterielle: Proprietes elastiques et distribution des contraintes. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry  vol. 103, (3) 10.3109/13813459509037271

Pollock L, Rampling D, Greenwald SE and Malone M (1995). Desmin expression in rhabdomyosarcoma: influence of the desmin clone and immunohistochemical method. Journal of Clinical Pathology  vol. 48, (6) 535-538. 10.1136/jcp.48.6.535

Rachev A, Greenwald SE, Kane TPC, Moore JE and Meister JJ (1995). Erratum: Analysis of the strain and stress distribution in the wall of the developing and mature rat aorta (Biorheology, Vol. 32, No.4, (1995), Page 477). Biorheology  vol. 32, (5) 10.1016/0006-355X(95)90872-U

Rachev A, Greenwald SE, Kane TP, Moore JE and Meister JJ (1995). Analysis of the strain and stress distribution in the wall of the developing and mature rat aorta. Biorheology  vol. 32, (4) 473-485. 10.1016/0006-355X(95)00024-4

1994

Sobeh MS, Chan P, Greenwald SE, Ham RJ, Wood AJ, Cross FWM and Hsiang YNM (1994). Suppression of neointimal hyperplasia by photodynamic therapy: in vitro and in vivo results. Proceedings of Spie - The International Society For Optical Engineering  vol. 2130, 47-52.

Hsiang YNM, Crespo MT, Houston GTM, To EC, Todd ME, Sobeh MS, Greenwald SE and Bower RD (1994). Selective treatment of atherosclerosis using photodynamic therapy in the Yucatan miniswine: preliminary results. Proceedings of Spie - The International Society For Optical Engineering  vol. 2130, 53-58.

1993

Berry CL, Sosa-Melgarejo JA and Greenwald SE (1993). The relationship between wall tension, lamellar thickness, and intercellular junctions in the fetal and adult aorta: its relevance to the pathology of dissecting aneurysm. J Pathol  vol. 169, (1) 15-20. 10.1002/path.1711690104

1992

Salih V, Greenwald SE, Chong CF, Coumbe A and Berry CL (1992). The development of an in-vitro perfusion system for studies on cultured cells. Int J Exp Pathol  vol. 73, (5) 625-632.

Celermajer DS, Dodd SM, Greenwald SE, Wyse RK and Deanfield JE (1992). Morbid anatomy in neonates with Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve: pathophysiologic and clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol  vol. 19, (5) 1049-1053. 10.1016/0735-1097(92)90293-V

Crooks DA, Scholtz CL, Vowles G, Greenwald S and Evans S (1992). Axonal injury in closed head injury by assault: a quantitative study. Med Sci Law  vol. 32, (2) 109-117. 10.1177/106002809203200204

Bertram CD and Greenwald SE (1992). A general method of determining the frequency-dependent propagation coefficient and characteristic impedance of an artery in the presence of reflections. J Biomech Eng  vol. 114, (1) 2-9. 10.1115/1.2895445

1991

Crooks DA, Scholtz CL, Vowles G, Greenwald S and Evans S (1991). The glial reaction in closed head injuries. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol  vol. 17, (5) 407-414. 10.1111/j.1365-2990.1991.tb00740.x

1990

Greenwald SE, Carter AC and Berry CL (1990). Effect of age on the in vitro reflection coefficient of the aortoiliac bifurcation in humans. Circulation  vol. 82, (1) 114-123. 10.1161/01.CIR.82.1.114

1989

Tippins JR, Greenwald SE, Lever MJ, MacIntyre I and Morris HR (1989). Coronary vasodilatation induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide in the anaesthetised pig. Neuropeptides  vol. 13, (2) 95-102. 10.1016/0143-4179(89)90005-X

1988

Greenwald SE, Collino CE and Berry CL (1988). In vitro determination of lung airway compliance in small animals. Med Biol Eng Comput  vol. 26, (5) 497-502. 10.1007/BF02441917

1987

Berry CL and Greenwald SE (1987). The validity of negative necropsy reports from metastases in solid organs. J Pathol  vol. 151, (3) 239-240. 10.1002/path.1711510312

Berry CL, Greenwald SE, Weiss L, Harlos JP, Norton AJ and Isaacson PG (1987). Letters to the editor. The Journal of Pathology  vol. 151, (3) 239-242. 10.1002/path.1711510312

1986

Moodie TB, Barclay DW and Greenwald SE (1986). Impulse propagation in liquid filled distensible tubes: Theory and experiment for intermediate to long wavelengths. Acta Mechanica  vol. 59, (1-2) 47-58. 10.1007/BF01177059

Newman DL, Sipkema P, Greenwald SE and Westerhof N (1986). High frequency characteristics of the arterial system. J Biomech  vol. 19, (10) 817-824. 10.1016/0021-9290(86)90132-6

1985

Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Ramsey RE (1985). The static elastic properties and chemical composition of the rat aorta in spontaneously occurring and experimentally induced hypertension: the effect of an anti-hypertensive drug. Br J Exp Pathol  vol. 66, (6) 633-642.

Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Moodie TB (1985). Impulse propagation in rubber-tube analogues of arterial stenoses and aneurysms. Med Biol Eng Comput  vol. 23, (2) 150-154. 10.1007/BF02456752

Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Moodie TB (1985). Reflection of pressure transients in rubber tube analogues of arterial stenoses and aneurysms.

1984

Moodie TB, Barclay DW, Greenwald SE and Newman DL (1984). Waves in fluid filled tubes: Theory and experiment. Acta Mechanica  vol. 54, (1-2) 107-119. 10.1007/BF01190600

Greenwald SE, Letts LG, Newman DL and Piper PJ (1984). Actions of cysteinyl leukotrienes in coronary, femoral and carotid vessels of the pig. Eur J Pharmacol  vol. 103, (1-2) 107-114. 10.1016/0014-2999(84)90195-X

Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Kay PH (1984). Modified Blalock-Taussig operation using polytetrafluoroethylene (Impra) grafts. British Heart Journal  vol. 52, (5) 594-595.

1983

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Moodie TB (1983). Reflection from elastic discontinuities. Med Biol Eng Comput  vol. 21, (6) 697-701. 10.1007/BF02464032

Letts LG, Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Piper PJ (1983). Effects of intra-coronary administration of leukotriene D4 in the anaesthetized dog. Prostaglandins  vol. 26, (4) 563-572. 10.1016/0090-6980(83)90194-6

Newman DL, Penney SJ and Greenwald SE (1983). Pulse propagation characteristics by an impulse technique. Med Biol Eng Comput  vol. 21, (4) 515-517. 10.1007/BF02442643

1982

Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Haworth SG (1982). Changes in the distensibility of the intrapulmonary arteries in the normal newborn and growing pig. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 16, (12) 716-725. 10.1093/cvr/16.12.716

Greenwald SE and Newman DL (1982). Impulse propagation through junctions. Med Biol Eng Comput  vol. 20, (3) 343-350. 10.1007/BF02442802

Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Denyer HT (1982). Effect of smooth muscle activity on the static and dynamic elastic properties of the rabbit carotid artery. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 16, (2) 86-94. 10.1093/cvr/16.2.86

Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Denyer HT (1982). Effect of smooth muscle activity on the static and dynamic elastic properties of the rabbit carotid artery. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 16, (2) 86-94. 10.1093/cvr/16.2.86

Greenwald SE, Berry CL and Haworth SG (1982). Changes in the distensibility of the intrapulmonary arteries in the normal newborn and growing pig. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 16, (12) 716-725. 10.1093/cvr/16.12.716

1981

Berry CL, Greenwald SE and Menahem N (1981). Effect of beta-aminopropionitrile on the static elastic properties and blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 15, (7) 373-381. 10.1093/cvr/15.7.373

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Denyer HT (1981). Impulse propagation in normal and stenosed vessels. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 15, (4) 190-195. 10.1093/cvr/15.4.190

Berry CL, Greenwald SE and Menahem N (1981). Effect of beta-aminopropionitrile on the static elastic properties and blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 15, (7) 373-381. 10.1093/cvr/15.7.373

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Denyer HT (1981). Impulse propagation in normal and stenosed vessels. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 15, (4) 190-195. 10.1093/cvr/15.4.190

1980

Newman DL and Greenwald SE (1980). Analysis of forward and backward pressure waves by a total-occlusion method. Med Biol Eng Comput  vol. 18, (2) 241-245. 10.1007/BF02443301

1979

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Bowden NL (1979). An in vivo study of the total occlusion method for the analysis of forward and backward pressure waves. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 13, (10) 595-600. 10.1093/cvr/13.10.595

Newman DL, Greenwald SE and Bowden NLR (1979). An in vivo study of the total occlusion method for the analysis of forward and backward pressure waves. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 13, (10) 595-600. 10.1093/cvr/13.10.595

1978

Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Bowden NL (1978). Comparison between theoretical and directly measured pulse propagation velocities in the aorta of the anesthetised dog. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 12, (7) 407-414. 10.1093/cvr/12.7.407

Greenwald SE and Berry CL (1978). Static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats: a comparison with the effects of induced hypertension. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 12, (6) 364-372. 10.1093/cvr/12.6.364

Greenwald SE, Newman DL and Bowden NLR (1978). Comparison between theoretical and directly measured pulse propagation velocities in the aorta of the anaesthetised dog. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 12, (7) 407-414. 10.1093/cvr/12.7.407

Greenwald SE and Berry CL (1978). Static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats: A comparison with the effects of induced hypertension. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 12, (6) 364-372. 10.1093/cvr/12.6.364

1976

Berry CL and Greenwald SE (1976). Effects of hypertension on the static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the rat aorta. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 10, (4) 437-451. 10.1093/cvr/10.4.437

Berry CL and Greenwald SE (1976). Effects of hypertension on the static mechanical properties and chemical composition of the rat aorta. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 10, (4) 437-451. 10.1093/cvr/10.4.437

1975

Berry CL, Greenwald SE and Rivett JF (1975). Static mechanical properties of the developing and mature rat aorta. Cardiovasc Res  vol. 9, (5) 669-678. 10.1093/cvr/9.5.669

Berry CL, Greenwald SE and Rivett JF (1975). Static mechanical properties of the developing and mature rat aorta. Cardiovascular Research  vol. 9, (5) 669-678. 10.1093/cvr/9.5.669

1974

Berry CL, Germain J, Newman DL and Greenwald SE (1974). Comparative morphological and functional aspects of the aorta of the major vertebrate classes. Lab Anim  vol. 8, (3) 279-289. 10.1258/002367774780943643

1973

Berry CL and Greenwald S (1973). Changes in structure and mechanical properties of the rat aorta induced by a hypertensive period during development. J Pathol  vol. 110, (3)

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