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Institute of Bioengineering

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Prof Steffi Krause

Professor of Electroanalytical Systems

Department School of Engineering and Materials Science
Telephone +44 (0)20 7882 3747

IoB Highlights

Biosensing and electrochemical imaging

Key strengths, technologies, know-how

  • Biosensors for enzyme detection
  • Impedance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance
  • Electrochemical imaging with light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS)
  • Semiconductor devices


  • Inflammation monitoring in multiple sclerosis, periodontal disease and other conditions
  • Electrochemical imaging of cells in the cell-surface attachment area à applications in the investigation of degenerative diseases and cell based biosensors
  • Interrogation of high density sensor arrays, DNA or aptamer based high-throughput sensing using LAPS
  • Localised pH and ion measurements

Selective research achievements

  • Submicron resolution of LAPS imaging using silicon-on-sapphire substrates with organic monolayer as insulator
  • Generic sensor materials for the detection of proteases

Research Interests

Dr Steffi Krause gained her PhD in 1994 at the Humboldt-University of Berlin working on the development and characterisation of a field-effect oxygen sensor. Her postdoctoral research at the Universities of Newcastle and Glasgow focused on the development of new biosensor principles. She worked as a Lecturer and later EPSRC Advanced Research Fellow at the Chemistry Department of Sheffield University from 1997 to 2004 and then moved to the Materials Department at Queen Mary. Her research interest is in impedance and potential imaging of thin films and biologial samples and the development of enzyme detectors for medical applications.


Zhou B, Das A, Kappers M, Oliver R, Humphreys C and Krause S (2019). InGaN as a substrate for AC photoelectrochemical imaging. Mdpi  Sensors  10.3390/s19204386

Wang J, Yang Z, Chen W, Du L, Jiao B, Krause S, Wang P, Wei Q, Zhang D-W and Wu C (2019). Modulated light-activated electrochemistry at silicon functionalized with metal-organic frameworks towards addressable DNA chips. Elsevier  Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 146, 111750-111750. 10.1016/j.bios.2019.111750

Wan K, Taroni PJ, Liu Z, Liu Y, Tu Y, Santagiuliana G, Hsia I, Zhang H, Fenwick O, Krause S, Baxendale M, Schroeder BC and Bilotti E (2019). Flexible and Stretchable Self-Powered Multi-Sensors Based on the N-Type Thermoelectric Response of Polyurethane/Na x (Ni-ett) n Composites. Wiley  Advanced Electronic Materials  1900582-1900582. 10.1002/aelm.201900582

Ahmad N, Colak B, Gibbs MJ, Zhang D-W, Gautrot JE, Watkinson M, Becer CR and Krause S (2019). Peptide Cross-Linked Poly(2-oxazoline) as a Sensor Material for the Detection of Proteases with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Biomacromolecules  vol. 20, (7) 2506-2514. 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00245

Wu F, Zhou B, Wang J, Zhong M, Das A, Watkinson M, Hing K, Zhang D-W and Krause S (2019). Photoelectrochemical Imaging System for the Mapping of Cell Surface Charges. Anal Chem  10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00304

Ahmad N, Colak B, Zhang DW, Gibbs MJ, Watkinson M, Remzi Becer C, Gautrot JE and Krause S (2019). Peptide cross-linked poly (Ethylene glycol) hydrogel films as biosensor coatings for the detection of collagenase. Sensors (Switzerland)  vol. 19, (7) 10.3390/s19071677


TU Y, AHMAD N, BRISCOE J, ZHANG D and KRAUSE S (2018). Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors using ZnO Nanorods as the Sensor Substrate for Bioanalytical Applications. American Chemical Society  Analytical Chemistry  10.1021/acs.analchem.8b02244

Wang J, Du L, Krause S, Wu C and Wang P (2018). Surface modification and construction of LAPS towards biosensing applications. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical  vol. 265, 161-173. 10.1016/j.snb.2018.02.190

ZHANG D, PAPAIOANNOU N, David NM, LUO H, GAO H, Tanase LC, Degousee T, Samori P, SAPELKIN A, FENWICK O, TITIRICI M and KRAUSE SK (2018). Photoelectrochemical response of carbon dots (CDs) derived from chitosan and their use in electrochemical imaging. Rsc  Materials Horizons  10.1039/c7mh00784a

TU Y, CHEN S, LI X, GORBACIOVA J, GILLIN WP, KRAUSE S and BRISCOE J (2018). Control of oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanorods by annealing and their influence on ZnO/PEDOT:PSS diode behaviour. Royal Society of Chemistry  Journal of Materials Chemistry C  10.1039/C7TC04284A


Zhang D, Wu F and KRAUSE SK (2017). LAPS and SPIM imaging using ITO coated glass as the substrate material. American Chemical Society  Analytical Chemistry  10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01898

Wu F, Campos I, Zhang D and KRAUSE SK (2017). Biological imaging using light-addressable potentiometric sensors and scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Royal Society, The  Proceedings of The Royal Society a: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  10.1098/rspa.2017.0130

Wu F, Zhang DW, Wang J, Watkinson M and Krause S (2017). Copper Contamination of Self-Assembled Organic Monolayer Modified Silicon Surfaces Following a ?Click? Reaction Characterized with LAPS and SPIM. Langmuir  vol. 33, (13) 3170-3177. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03831


Zhang DW, Wu F, Wang J, Watkinson M and KRAUSE SK (2016). Image detection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS). Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 72, 41-45. 10.1016/j.elecom.2016.08.017

Wang J, Campos I, Wu F, Zhu J, Sukhorukov GB, Palma M, Watkinson M and Krause S (2016). The effect of gold nanoparticles on the impedance of microcapsules visualized by scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 208, 39-46. 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.05.017


Wang J, Wu F, Watkinson M, Zhu J and Krause S (2015). click Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surfaces and Their Characterization Using Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors. Langmuir  vol. 31, (35) 9646-9654. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02069

Gibbs MJ, Biela A and Krause S (2015). ?-Amylase sensor based on the degradation of oligosaccharide hydrogel films monitored with a quartz crystal sensor. Biosens Bioelectron  vol. 67, 540-545. 10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.036

Wang J, Zhou Y, Watkinson M, Gautrot J and Krause S (2015). High-sensitivity light-addressable potentiometric sensors using silicon on sapphire functionalized with self-assembled organic monolayers. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 209, 230-236. 10.1016/j.snb.2014.11.071

Zhang H, Yilmaz P, Ansari JO, Khan FF, Binions R, Krause S and Dunn S (2015). Incorporation of Ag nanowires in CuWO4 for improved visible light-induced photoanode performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry A  vol. 3, (18) 9638-9644. 10.1039/c4ta07213h

Biela A, Watkinson M, Meier UC, Baker D, Giovannoni G, Becer CR and Krause S (2015). Disposable MMP-9 sensor based on the degradation of peptide cross-linked hydrogel films using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 68, 660-667. 10.1016/j.bios.2015.01.060


Dzaraini K, Norizan A, Krause S, Hunter C and Milanesi L (2013). Degradation behaviour of thin polymer films of poly (amide ester) hydrogel using quartz crystal microbalance. Advanced Materials Research  vol. 812, 38-45. 10.4028/


Zhang DW, Zhang FT, Cui YR, Deng QP, Krause S, Zhou YL and Zhang XX (2012). A label-free aptasensor for the sensitive and specific detection of cocaine using supramolecular aptamer fragments/target complex by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Talanta  vol. 92, 65-71. 10.1016/j.talanta.2012.01.049


Zheng X, Cook JP, Watkinson M, Yang S, Douglas I, Rawlinson A and Krause S (2011). Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease. Faraday Discussions  vol. 149, 37-47. 10.1039/c005364c


Chen L, Zhou Y, Jiang S, Kunze J, Schmuki P and Krause S (2010). High resolution LAPS and SPIM. Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 12, (6) 758-760. 10.1016/j.elecom.2010.03.026


Kamarun D, Zheng XW, Milanesi L, Hunter CA and Krause S (2009). A peptide cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogel for the detection of human neutrophil elastase. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 54, (22) 4985-4990. 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.03.067

Stair JL, Watkinson M and Krause S (2009). Sensor materials for the detection of proteases. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 24, (7) 2113-2118. 10.1016/j.bios.2008.11.002

Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Selected Papers from the Second International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications, 2007. J Mater Sci-Mater El  vol. 20, 1-2. 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z

Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Editorial: Selected papers from the second international conference on optical, optoelectronic and photonic materials and applications, 2007. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics  vol. 20, (SUPPL. 1) 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z


Chen L, Zhou Y, Krause S, Munoz AG, Kunze J and Schmuki P (2008). Repair of thin thermally grown silicon dioxide by anodic oxidation. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 53, (8) 3395-3402. 10.1016/j.electacta.2007.11.065


Zhou Y, Jiang S, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Biosensor arrays based on the degradation of thin polymer films interrogated by scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (23) 8974-8978. 10.1021/ac071437t

Zhou Y, Chen L, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy using amorphous silicon photodiode structures. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (16) 6208-6214. 10.1021/ac070797d


Krause S, Moritz W, Talabani H, Xu M, Sabot A and Ensell G (2006). Scanning Photo-Induced Impedance Microscopy - Resolution studies and polymer characterization. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 51, (8-9) 1423-1430. 10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.119

KRAUSE SK, Fernandez-Sanchez C and McNeil CJ (2006). Sensors based on thin film degradation. Encyclopedia of Sensors  American Scientific Publishers 


Moritz W, Yoshinobu T, Finger F, Krause S, Martin-Fernandez M and Schoning MJ (2004). High resolution LAPS using amorphous silicon as the semiconductor material. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical  vol. 103, (1-2) 436-441. 10.1016/j.snb.2004.04.073


KRAUSE SK (2003). Impedance methods. Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Volume 3, Instrumentation and Electroanalytical Chemistry  Wiley-Vch Verlag 


Sabot A and Krause S (2002). Simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance impedance and electrochemical impedance measurements. Investigation into the degradation of thin polymer films. Anal Chem  vol. 74, (14) 3304-3311. 10.1021/ac0200724

Krause S, Talabani H, Xu M, Moritz W and Griffiths J (2002). Scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy - an impedance based imaging technique. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 47, (13-14) 2143-2148. 10.1016/S0013-4686(02)00088-9


Sumner C, Krause S, Sabot A, Turner K and McNeil CJ (2001). Biosensor based on enzyme-catalysed degradation of thin polymer films. Biosensors & Bioelectronics  vol. 16, (9-12) 709-714. 10.1016/s0956-5663(01)00210-x

Moritz W, Krause S, Roth U, Klimm D and Lippitz A (2001). Re-activation of an all solid state oxygen sensor. Anal Chim Acta  vol. 437, (2) 183-190. 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)00993-X


Sumner C, Sabot A, Turner K and Krause S (2000). A transducer based on enzyme-induced degradation of thin polymer films monitored by surface plasmon resonance. Anal Chem  vol. 72, (21) 5225-5232. 10.1021/ac000411y

Moritz W, Gerhardt I, Roden D, Xu M and Krause S (2000). Photocurrent measurements for laterally resolved interface characterization. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry  vol. 367, (4) 329-333. 10.1007/s002160000409


Ho WO, Krause S, McNeil CJ, Pritchard JA, Armstrong RD, Athey D and Rawson K (1999). Electrochemical sensor for measurement of urea and creatinine in serum based on ac impedance measurement of enzyme-catalyzed polymer transformation. Anal Chem  vol. 71, (10) 1940-1946. 10.1021/ac981367d


Moritz W, Krause S, Bartholom√§us L, Gabusjan T, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1998). Silicon-Based Sensor for Flourine Gas. Acs Symposium Series  vol. 690, 119-129. 10.1021/bk-1998-0690.ch010


McNeil CJ, Athey D, Ball M, Ho WO, Krause S, Armstrong RD, Des Wright J and Rawson K (1995). Electrochemical Sensors Based on Impedance Measurement of Enzyme-Catalyzed Polymer Dissolution: Theory and Applications. American Chemical Society (Acs)  Analytical Chemistry  vol. 67, (21) 3928-3935. 10.1021/ac00117a018

Moritz W, Krause S, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1995). Monitoring of HF and F2 using a field-effect sensor. Elsevier Bv  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 24, (1-3) 194-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(95)85041-4


Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1994). Improved long-term stability for an LaF3 based oxygen sensor. Elsevier Bv  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 18, (1-3) 148-154. 10.1016/0925-4005(94)87074-8


Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1992). A low-temperature oxygen sensor based on the Si/LaF3/Pt capacitive structure. Elsevier Bv  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 9, (3) 191-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(92)80215-j


Bobrov PV, Tarantov YA, Krause S and Moritz W (1991). Chemical sensitivity of an ISFET with Ta2O5 membrane in strong acid and alkaline solutions. Elsevier Bv  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 3, (1) 75-81. 10.1016/0925-4005(91)85010-g

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