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Institute of Bioengineering

Team menu

Prof Fran Balkwill

OBE, FMedSci

Centre Lead, Centre for Cancer and Inflammation /
Institute of Bioengineering Director of Research Strategy

Department Barts Cancer Institute
Email f.balkwill@qmul.ac.uk
Homepage https://www.bci.qmul.ac.uk/staff/item/fran-balkwill

Research Interests

My research is focused on the links between cancer and inflammation, being especially interested in translating knowledge of cancer biology into new biological treatments for cancer and in the role that inflammatory cytokines play in cancer promotion.

My key areas of interest are:

  • The Tumour Microenvironment
  • Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the tumour microenvironment
  • 'Ovarian' cancer with a focus on high grade serous and clear cell subtypes
  • Public engagement with biomedical science and science policy

2018

Candido JB, Morton JP, Bailey P, Campbell AD, Karim SA, Jamieson T, Lapienyte L, Gopinathan A, Clark W, McGhee EJ, Wang J, Escorcio-Correia M, Zollinger R, Roshani R, Drew L, Rishi L, Arkell R, Evans TRJ, Nixon C, Jodrell DI, Wilkinson RW, Biankin AV, Barry ST, Balkwill FR and Sans (2018). CSF1R+ Macrophages Sustain Pancreatic Tumor Growth through T Cell Suppression and Maintenance of Key Gene Programs that Define the Squamous Subtype. Cell Rep  vol. 23, (5) 1448-1460. 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.03.131

2017

Pearce OMT, Delaine-Smith R, Maniati E, Nichols S, Wang J, Böhm S, Rajeeve V, Ullah D, Chakravarty P, Jones RR, Montfort A, Dowe T, Gribben J, Jones JL, Kocher HM, Serody JS, Vincent BG, Connelly J, Brenton JD, Chelala C, Cutillas PR, Lockley M, Bessant C, Knight M and Balkwill FR (2017). Deconstruction of a metastatic tumor microenvironment reveals a common matrix response in human cancers. Cancer Discov  10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0284

Naba A, Pearce OMT, Del Rosario A, Ma D, Ding H, Rajeeve V, Cutillas PR, Balkwill FR and Hynes RO (2017). Characterization of the Extracellular Matrix of Normal and Diseased Tissues Using Proteomics. J Proteome Res  vol. 16, (8) 3083-3091. 10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00191

Netea MG, Balkwill F, Chonchol M, Cominelli F, Donath MY, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Golenbock D, Gresnigt MS, Heneka MT, Hoffman HM, Hotchkiss R, Joosten LAB, Kastner DL, Korte M, Latz E, Libby P, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Mantovani A, Mills KHG, Nowak KL, O'Neill LA, Pickkers P and va (2017). A guiding map for inflammation. Nat Immunol  vol. 18, (8) 826-831. 10.1038/ni.3790

BALKWILL F, Berlato C, Khan MN, Schioppa T, Thompson R, Maniati E, Montfort A, Jangani M, Canosa M, Kulbe H, Hagemann U, Duncan A, Fletcher L, Wilkinson RW, Powles T and Quezada S (2017). A CCR4 antagonist reverses the tumor-promoting microenvironment of renal cancer. American Society For Clinical Investigation  Journal of Clinical Investigation  10.1172/JCI82976

2016

Delaine-Smith RM, Burney S, Balkwill FR and Knight MM (2016). Experimental validation of a flat punch indentation methodology calibrated against unconfined compression tests for determination of soft tissue biomechanics. Elsevier  Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials  vol. 60, 401-415. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.02.019

Steele CW, Karim SA, Leach JDG, Bailey P, Upstill-Goddard R, Rishi L, Foth M, Bryson S, McDaid K, Wilson Z, Eberlein C, Candido JB, Clarke M, Nixon C, Connelly J, Jamieson N, Carter CR, Balkwill F, Chang DK, Evans TRJ, Strathdee D, Biankin AV, Nibbs RJB, Barry ST, Sansom OJ and Mort (2016). CXCR2 Inhibition Profoundly Suppresses Metastases and Augments Immunotherapy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Elsevier (Cell Press)  Cancer Cell  vol. 29, (6) 832-845. 10.1016/j.ccell.2016.04.014

GROSE RP, Dawkins JBN, Wang J, maniati , heward , koniali , kocher , martin , chelala , balkwill and fitzgibbon (2016). Reduced expression of histone methyltransferases KMT2C and KMT2D correlates with improved outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. American Association For Cancer Research  Cancer Research  10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-0481

BALKWILL F, Anne Montfort and Oliver Pearce (2016). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy modulates the immune microenvironment in metastases of tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. American Association For Cancer Research  Clinical Cancer Research  10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2657

Kulbe H, Iorio F, Chakravarty P, Milagre CS, Moore R, Thompson RG, Everitt G, Canosa M, Montoya A, Drygin D, Braicu I, Sehouli J, Saez-Rodriguez J, Cutillas PR and Balkwill FR (2016). Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis identifies protein kinase CK2 as a key signaling node in an inflammatory cytokine network in ovarian cancer cells. Oncotarget  vol. 7, (13) 15648-15661. 10.18632/oncotarget.7255

Walton J, Dowson S, Ennis D, Leung E, Farquharson M, Stevenson D, Blyth K, Strathdee D, Balkwill FR, Lockley M and McNeish IA (2016). CRISPR/Cas9 mediated p53 and BRCA2 knockout to generate improved murine models of high grade serous ovarian cancer. Clinical Cancer Research  vol. 22, 10.1158/1557-3265.OVCA15-B53

2015

Bowtell DD, Böhm S, Ahmed AA, Aspuria P-J, Bast RC, Beral V, Berek JS, Birrer MJ, Blagden S, Bookman MA, Brenton JD, Chiappinelli KB, Martins FC, Coukos G, Drapkin R, Edmondson R, Fotopoulou C, Gabra H, Galon J, Gourley C, Heong V, Huntsman DG, Iwanicki M, Karlan BY, Kaye A and Leng (2015). Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Nat Rev Cancer  vol. 15, (11) 668-679. 10.1038/nrc4019

Crusz SM and Balkwill FR (2015). Inflammation and cancer: advances and new agents. Nat Rev Clin Oncol  vol. 12, (10) 584-596. 10.1038/nrclinonc.2015.105

Gopinathan G, Milagre C, Pearce OMT, Reynolds L, Hodivala-Dilke K, Leinster A, Zhong H, Hollingsworth RE, Thompson R, Whiteford JR and Balkwill F (2015). Interleukin-6 stimulates defective angiogenesis. Cancer Research  vol. 75, 10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-4162

Gopinathan G, Milagre C, Pearce OMT, Reynolds LE, Hodivala-Dilke K, Leinster DA, Zhong H, Hollingsworth RE, Thompson R, Whiteford JR and Balkwill F (2015). Interleukin-6 Stimulates Defective Angiogenesis. Cancer Res  vol. 75, (15) 3098-3107. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1227

Milagre CS, Gopinathan G, Everitt G, Thompson RG, Kulbe H, Zhong H, Hollingsworth RE, Grose R, Bowtell DDL, Hochhauser D and Balkwill FR (2015). Adaptive Upregulation of EGFR Limits Attenuation of Tumor Growth by Neutralizing IL6 Antibodies, with Implications for Combined Therapy in Ovarian Cancer. Cancer Res  vol. 75, (7) 1255-1264. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1801

Balkwill F (2015). Targeting inflammatory cytokines in cancer. Clinical & Experimental Metastasis  vol. 32, (3) 183-183.

Balkwill F and Chambers K (2015). Centre of the Cell: Science Comes to Life. Plos Biol  vol. 13, (9) 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002240

2014

Rei M, Gonçalves-Sousa N, Lança T, Thompson RG, Mensurado S, Balkwill FR, Kulbe H, Pennington DJ and Silva-Santos B (2014). Murine CD27(-) V?6(+) ?? T cells producing IL-17A promote ovarian cancer growth via mobilization of protumor small peritoneal macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  vol. 111, (34) E3562-E3570. 10.1073/pnas.1403424111

Balkwill F (2014). Targeting cancer-related inflammation. European Journal of Cancer  vol. 50, S9-S9. 10.1016/S0959-8049(14)50033-0

Karin M, Jobin C and Balkwill F (2014). Chemotherapy, immunity and microbiota--a new triumvirate? Nat Med  vol. 20, (2) 126-127. 10.1038/nm.3473

Lau T-S, Chung TK-H, Cheung T-H, Chan LK-Y, Cheung LW-H, Yim S-F, Siu NS-S, Lo K-W, Yu MM-Y, Kulbe H, Balkwill FR and Kwong J (2014). Cancer cell-derived lymphotoxin mediates reciprocal tumour-stromal interactions in human ovarian cancer by inducing CXCL11 in fibroblasts. J Pathol  vol. 232, (1) 43-56. 10.1002/path.4258

2013

Whilding LM, Archibald KM, Kulbe H, Balkwill FR, Öberg D and McNeish IA (2013). Vaccinia virus induces programmed necrosis in ovarian cancer cells. Mol Ther  vol. 21, (11) 2074-2086. 10.1038/mt.2013.195

Leinster DA, Colom B, Whiteford JR, Ennis DP, Lockley M, McNeish IA, Aurrand-Lions M, Chavakis T, Imhof BA, Balkwill FR and Nourshargh S (2013). Endothelial cell junctional adhesion molecule C plays a key role in the development of tumors in a murine model of ovarian cancer. Faseb J  vol. 27, (10) 4244-4253. 10.1096/fj.13-230441

Sandhu SK, Papadopoulos K, Fong PC, Patnaik A, Messiou C, Olmos D, Wang G, Tromp BJ, Puchalski TA, Balkwill F, Berns B, Seetharam S, de Bono JS and Tolcher AW (2013). A first-in-human, first-in-class, phase I study of carlumab (CNTO 888), a human monoclonal antibody against CC-chemokine ligand 2 in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol  vol. 71, (4) 1041-1050. 10.1007/s00280-013-2099-8

Balkwill F, Montfort A and Capasso M (2013). B regulatory cells in cancer. Trends Immunol  vol. 34, (4) 169-173. 10.1016/j.it.2012.10.007

2012

Balkwill FR, Capasso M and Hagemann T (2012). The tumor microenvironment at a glance. J Cell Sci  vol. 125, (Pt 23) 5591-5596. 10.1242/jcs.116392

Archibald KM, Kulbe H, Kwong J, Chakravarty P, Temple J, Chaplin T, Flak MB, McNeish IA, Deen S, Brenton JD, Young BD and Balkwill F (2012). Sequential genetic change at the TP53 and chemokine receptor CXCR4 locus during transformation of human ovarian surface epithelium. Oncogene  vol. 31, (48) 4987-4995. 10.1038/onc.2011.653

Leinster DA, Kulbe H, Everitt G, Thompson R, Perretti M, Gavins FNE, Cooper D, Gould D, Ennis DP, Lockley M, McNeish IA, Nourshargh S and Balkwill FR (2012). The peritoneal tumour microenvironment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. J Pathol  vol. 227, (2) 136-145. 10.1002/path.4002

Kulbe H, Chakravarty P, Moore R, Iorio F, Montoya A, Saez-Rodriguez J, Cutillas P and Balkwill F (2012). Targeting the TNF network in human ovarian cancer - A systems biology approach. Cancer Research  vol. 72, 10.1158/1538-7445.AM2012-49

Affara NI, Ruffell B, Johansson M, Fujikawa K, Bergsland E, DeNardo DG, Chen HI, Wadhwani N, Steinhoff M, Truitt M, Olson P, Hanahan D, Li Y, Gong Q, Ma Y, Wiesen JF, Kim G, Tempero M, Balkwill F, Irving B and Coussens LM (2012). CD20 as a target for therapy in solid tumors. Cancer Research  vol. 72, 10.1158/1538-7445.AM2012-4391

Stone RL, Nick AM, McNeish IA, Balkwill F, Han HD, Bottsford-Miller J, Rupairmoole R, Armaiz-Pena GN, Pecot CV, Coward J, Deavers MT, Vasquez HG, Urbauer D, Landen CN, Hu W, Gershenson H, Matsuo K, Shahzad MMK, King ER, Tekedereli I, Ozpolat B, Ahn EH, Bond VK, Wang R, Drew AF and G (2012). Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med  vol. 366, (7) 610-618. 10.1056/NEJMoa1110352

Balkwill FR and Mantovani A (2012). Cancer-related inflammation: common themes and therapeutic opportunities. Semin Cancer Biol  vol. 22, (1) 33-40. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2011.12.005

Kulbe H, Chakravarty P, Leinster DA, Charles KA, Kwong J, Thompson RG, Coward JI, Schioppa T, Robinson SC, Gallagher WM, Galletta L, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group , Salako MA, Smyth JF, Hagemann T, Brennan DJ, Bowtell DD and Balkwill FR (2012). A dynamic inflammatory cytokine network in the human ovarian cancer microenvironment. Cancer Res  vol. 72, (1) 66-75. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-2178

Balkwill FR (2012). The chemokine system and cancer. J Pathol  vol. 226, (2) 148-157. 10.1002/path.3029

2011

Balkwill FR, Coward J, Kulbe H, Milagre C, Gopinathan G and McNeish IA (2011). IL-6 and ovarian cancer--response. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 17, (24) 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2680

Maniati E, Bossard M, Cook N, Candido JB, Emami-Shahri N, Nedospasov SA, Balkwill FR, Tuveson DA and Hagemann T (2011). Crosstalk between the canonical NF-?B and Notch signaling pathways inhibits Ppar? expression and promotes pancreatic cancer progression in mice. J Clin Invest  vol. 121, (12) 4685-4699. 10.1172/JCI45797

Balkwill F (2011). The inflammatory tissue microenvironment and the early stages of malignancy. Pre-Invasive Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management  10.1007/978-1-4419-6694-0_2

Coward J and Balkwill F (2011). Targeting inflammatory pathways in epithelial ovarian cancer. Emerging Therapeutic Targets in Ovarian Cancer  10.1007/978-1-4419-7216-3_7

Vaughan S, Coward JI, Bast RC, Berchuck A, Berek JS, Brenton JD, Coukos G, Crum CC, Drapkin R, Etemadmoghadam D, Friedlander M, Gabra H, Kaye SB, Lord CJ, Lengyel E, Levine DA, McNeish IA, Menon U, Mills GB, Nephew KP, Oza AM, Sood AK, Stronach EA, Walczak H, Bowtell DD and Balkwill (2011). Rethinking ovarian cancer: recommendations for improving outcomes. Nat Rev Cancer  vol. 11, (10) 719-725. 10.1038/nrc3144

Coward J, Kulbe H, Chakravarty P, Leader D, Vassileva V, Leinster DA, Thompson R, Schioppa T, Nemeth J, Vermeulen J, Singh N, Avril N, Cummings J, Rexhepaj E, Jirström K, Gallagher WM, Brennan DJ, McNeish IA and Balkwill FR (2011). Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 17, (18) 6083-6096. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0945

Balkwill F, Whitehead S, Willis P, Gaymond N, Kent A, Page C, Lovell-Badge R, Morris R, Lemon R and Banks D (2011). Safety of medicines and the use of animals in research. Lancet  vol. 378, (9786) 127-128. 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60984-7

Schioppa T, Moore R, Thompson RG, Rosser EC, Kulbe H, Nedospasov S, Mauri C, Coussens LM and Balkwill FR (2011). B regulatory cells and the tumor-promoting actions of TNF-? during squamous carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  vol. 108, (26) 10662-10667. 10.1073/pnas.1100994108

Allan S and Balkwill F (2011). Translating science in more ways than one: an interview with Frances Balkwill. Dis Model Mech  vol. 4, (3) 286-288. 10.1242/dmm.007898

Anglesio MS, George J, Kulbe H, Friedlander M, Rischin D, Lemech C, Power J, Coward J, Cowin PA, House CM, Chakravarty P, Gorringe KL, Campbell IG, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group , Okamoto A, Birrer MJ, Huntsman DG, de Fazio A, Kalloger SE, Balkwill F, Gilks CB and Bowtel (2011). IL6-STAT3-HIF signaling and therapeutic response to the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib in ovarian clear cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 17, (8) 2538-2548. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3314

Salako MA, Kulbe H, Ingemarsdotter CK, Pirlo KJ, Williams SL, Lockley M, Balkwill FR and McNeish IA (2011). Inhibition of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? increases adenovirus activity in ovarian cancer via modulation of cIAP1/2 expression. Mol Ther  vol. 19, (3) 490-499. 10.1038/mt.2010.247

2010

Balkwill F and Joffroy C (2010). TNF: a tumor-suppressing factor or a tumor-promoting factor? Future Oncol  vol. 6, (12) 1833-1836. 10.2217/fon.10.155

Flak MB, Connell CM, Chelala C, Archibald K, Salako MA, Pirlo KJ, Lockley M, Wheatley SP, Balkwill FR and McNeish IA (2010). p21 Promotes oncolytic adenoviral activity in ovarian cancer and is a potential biomarker. Mol Cancer  vol. 9, 10.1186/1476-4598-9-175

Toulza F, Nosaka K, Tanaka Y, Schioppa T, Balkwill F, Taylor GP and Bangham CRM (2010). Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-induced CC chemokine ligand 22 maintains a high frequency of functional FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol  vol. 185, (1) 183-189. 10.4049/jimmunol.0903846

Workman P, Aboagye EO, Balkwill F, Balmain A, Bruder G, Chaplin DJ, Double JA, Everitt J, Farningham DAH, Glennie MJ, Kelland LR, Robinson V, Stratford IJ, Tozer GM, Watson S, Wedge SR, Eccles SA and Committee of the National Cancer Research Institute (2010). Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research. Br J Cancer  vol. 102, (11) 1555-1577. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605642

Balkwill F and Mantovani A (2010). Cancer and inflammation: implications for pharmacology and therapeutics. Clin Pharmacol Ther  vol. 87, (4) 401-406. 10.1038/clpt.2009.312

Saadi A, Shannon NB, Lao-Sirieix P, O'Donovan M, Walker E, Clemons NJ, Hardwick JS, Zhang C, Das M, Save V, Novelli M, Balkwill F and Fitzgerald RC (2010). Stromal genes discriminate preinvasive from invasive disease, predict outcome, and highlight inflammatory pathways in digestive cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  vol. 107, (5) 2177-2182. 10.1073/pnas.0909797107

Balkwill F and Mantovani A (2010). Foreword. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev  vol. 21, (1) 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2009.11.004

2009

Charles KA, Kulbe H, Soper R, Escorcio-Correia M, Lawrence T, Schultheis A, Chakravarty P, Thompson RG, Kollias G, Smyth JF, Balkwill FR and Hagemann T (2009). The tumor-promoting actions of TNF-alpha involve TNFR1 and IL-17 in ovarian cancer in mice and humans. J Clin Invest  vol. 119, (10) 3011-3023. 10.1172/JCI39065

Kwong J, Kulbe H, Wong D, Chakravarty P and Balkwill F (2009). An antagonist of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 induces mitotic catastrophe in ovarian cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther  vol. 8, (7) 1893-1905. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0966

Kwong J, Chan FL, Wong K-K, Birrer MJ, Archibald KM, Balkwill FR, Berkowitz RS and Mok SC (2009). Inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha confers precancerous phenotype in an organoid model of normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Neoplasia  vol. 11, (6) 529-541. 10.1593/neo.09112

Balkwill F (2009). Tumour necrosis factor and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer  vol. 9, (5) 361-371. 10.1038/nrc2628

Schioppa T, Moore R, Thompson R, de Visser K, Coussens L and Balkwill F (2009). Role of B cell in two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Research  vol. 69,

Coward J, Quigley M, Leader D, Berns B, Balkwill F and McNeish I (2009). A Phase II study of intravenous CNT0328 in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Research  vol. 69,

Archibald K, Kwong J, Kulbe H, Young B and Balkwill F (2009). Spontaneously transformed hTERT immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cells have a functional amplification of the CXCR4 gene locus. Cancer Research  vol. 69,

Li NF, Kocher HM, Salako MA, Obermueller E, Sandle J and Balkwill F (2009). A novel function of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor in hTERT immortalization of human epithelial cells. Oncogene  vol. 28, (5) 773-780. 10.1038/onc.2008.412

2008

Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A and Balkwill F (2008). Cancer-related inflammation. Nature  vol. 454, (7203) 436-444. 10.1038/nature07205

Brown ER, Charles KA, Hoare SA, Rye RL, Jodrell DI, Aird RE, Vora R, Prabhakar U, Nakada M, Corringham RE, DeWitte M, Sturgeon C, Propper D, Balkwill FR and Smyth JF (2008). A clinical study assessing the tolerability and biological effects of infliximab, a TNF-alpha inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer. Ann Oncol  vol. 19, (7) 1340-1346. 10.1093/annonc/mdn054

Hagemann T, Lawrence T, McNeish I, Charles KA, Kulbe H, Thompson RG, Robinson SC and Balkwill FR (2008). Re-educating tumor-associated macrophages by targeting NF-kappaB. J Exp Med  vol. 205, (6) 1261-1268. 10.1084/jem.20080108

Ashworth A, Balkwill F, Bast RC, Berek JS, Kaye A, Boyd JA, Mills G, Weinstein JN, Woolley K and Workman P (2008). Opportunities and challenges in ovarian cancer research, a perspective from the 11th Ovarian cancer action/HHMT Forum, Lake Como, March 2007. Gynecol Oncol  vol. 108, (3) 652-657. 10.1016/j.ygyno.2007.11.014

Karagiannis SN, Bracher MG, Beavil RL, Beavil AJ, Hunt J, McCloskey N, Thompson RG, East N, Burke F, Sutton BJ, Dombrowicz D, Balkwill FR and Gould HJ (2008). Role of IgE receptors in IgE antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of ovarian tumor cells by human monocytic cells. Cancer Immunol Immun  vol. 57, (2) 247-263. 10.1007/s00262-007-0371-7

2007

Hagemann T, Balkwill F and Lawrence T (2007). Inflammation and cancer: A double-edged sword. Cancer Cell  vol. 12, (4) 300-301. 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.10.005

Li NF, Broad S, Lu YJ, Yang JS, Watson R, Hagemann T, Wilbanks G, Jacobs I, Balkwill F, Dafou D and Gayther SA (2007). Human ovarian surface epithelial cells immortalized with hTERT maintain functional pRb and p53 expression. Cell Prolif  vol. 40, (5) 780-794. 10.1111/j.1365-2184.2007.00462.x

Karagiannis SN, Bracher MG, Hunt J, McCloskey N, Beavil RL, Beavil AJ, Fear DJ, Thompson RG, East N, Burke F, Moore RJ, Dombrowicz DD, Balkwill FR and Gould HJ (2007). IgE-antibody-dependent immunotherapy of solid tumors: Cytotoxic and phagocytic mechanisms of eradication of ovarian cancer cells. J Immunol  vol. 179, (5) 2832-2843. 10.4049/jimmunol.179.5.2832

Lawrence T, Hageman T and Balkwill F (2007). Cancer. Sex, cytokines, and cancer. Science  vol. 317, (5834) 51-52. 10.1126/science.1146052

Szlosarek PW, Grimshaw MJ, Wilbanks GD, Hagemann T, Wilson JL, Burke F, Stamp G and Balkwill FR (2007). Aberrant regulation of argininosuccinate synthetase by TNF-alpha in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer  vol. 121, (1) 6-11. 10.1002/ijc.22666

Hagemann T, Robinson SC, Thompson RG, Charles K, Kulbe H and Balkwill FR (2007). Ovarian cancer cell-derived migration inhibitory factor enhances tumor growth, progression, and angiogenesis. Mol Cancer Ther  vol. 6, (7) 1993-2002. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0118

Kulbe H, Thompson R, Wilson JL, Robinson S, Hagemann T, Fatah R, Gould D, Ayhan A and Balkwill F (2007). The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha generates an autocrine tumor-promoting network in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res  vol. 67, (2) 585-592. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2941

2006

Szlosarek PW, Klabatsa A, Pallaska A, Sheaff M, Smith P, Crook T, Grimshaw MJ, Steele JP, Rudd RM, Balkwill FR and Fennell DA (2006). In vivo loss of expression of argininosuccinate synthetase in malignant pleural mesothelioma is a biomarker for susceptibility to arginine depletion. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 12, (23) 7126-7131. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1101

Mantovani A and Balkwill F (2006). RaIB signaling: A bridge between inflammation and cancer. Cell  vol. 127, (1) 42-44. 10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.019

Balkwill F (2006). TNF-alpha in promotion and progression of cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev  vol. 25, (3) 409-416. 10.1007/s10555-006-9005-3

Strauss SJ, Maharaj L, Hoare S, Johnson PW, Radford JA, Vinnecombe S, Millard L, Rohatiner A, Boral A, Trehu E, Schenkein D, Balkwill F, Joel SP and Lister TA (2006). Bortezomib therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma: potential correlation of in vitro sensitivity and tumor necrosis factor alpha response with clinical activity. J Clin Oncol  vol. 24, (13) 2105-2112. 10.1200/JCO.2005.04.6789

Hagemann T, Wilson J, Burke F, Kulbe H, Li NF, Pluddemann A, Charles K, Gordon S and Balkwill FR (2006). Ovarian cancer cells polarize macrophages towards a tumor-associated phenotype. Med Klin  vol. 101, (4) A44-A44.

Hagemann T, Wilson J, Burke F, Kulbe H, Li NF, Plüddemann A, Charles K, Gordon S and Balkwill FR (2006). Ovarian cancer cells polarize macrophages toward a tumor-associated phenotype. J Immunol  vol. 176, (8) 5023-5032. 10.4049/jimmunol.176.8.5023

Szlosarek P, Charles KA and Balkwill FR (2006). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha as a tumour promoter. Eur J Cancer  vol. 42, (6) 745-750. 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.01.012

Balkwill F (2006). Cancer and inflammation. Eur J Cancer  vol. 42, (6) 689-690. 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.03.002

Balkwill FR, Ashworth A, Bast RC, Berek JS, Boyd J, Disis ML, Gabra H, Gore ME, Hamilton TC, Jacobs IJ, Kaye SB, Kohn EC, Mills GB and Urban ND (2006). 10th Biennial Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting. Cancer Res  vol. 66, (6) 2904-2906. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2093

Balkwill F (2006). Inflammation: a double-edged sword. Eur J Cancer  vol. 42, (5) 571-571.

Szlosarek PW, Grimshaw MJ, Kulbe H, Wilson JL, Wilbanks GD, Burke F and Balkwill FR (2006). Expression and regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha in normal and malignant ovarian epithelium. Mol Cancer Ther  vol. 5, (2) 382-390. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0303

2005

Kulbe H, Hagemann T, Szlosarek PW, Balkwill FR and Wilson JL (2005). The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates chemokine receptor expression on ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res  vol. 65, (22) 10355-10362. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0957

Hagemann T and Balkwill F (2005). MIFed about cancer? Gastroenterology  vol. 129, (5) 1785-1787. 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.09.039

Madhusudan S, Muthuramalingam SR, Braybrooke JP, Wilner S, Kaur K, Han C, Hoare S, Balkwill F and Ganesan TS (2005). Study of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, in recurrent ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol  vol. 23, (25) 5950-5959. 10.1200/JCO.2005.04.127

Hagemann T, Wilson J, Kulbe H, Li NF, Leinster DA, Charles K, Klemm F, Pukrop T, Binder C and Balkwill FR (2005). Macrophages induce invasiveness of epithelial cancer cells via NF-kappa B and JNK. J Immunol  vol. 175, (2) 1197-1205. 10.4049/jimmunol.175.2.1197

Barton C, Davies D, Balkwill F and Burke F (2005). Involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis that are enhanced with cisplatin. Eur J Cancer  vol. 41, (10) 1474-1486. 10.1016/j.ejca.2005.03.022

Balkwill F (2005). The language of life: How cells communicate in health and disease. Nature  vol. 435, (7046) 1162-1162. 10.1038/4351162a

Balkwill F (2005). Immunology for the next generation. Nat Rev Immunol  vol. 5, (6) 509-512. 10.1038/nri1628

Balkwill F and Watt F (2005). Fran Balkwill. J Cell Sci  vol. 118, (Pt 7) 1339-1340. 10.1242/jcs.01688

Balkwill F, Charles KA and Mantovani A (2005). Smoldering and polarized inflammation in the initiation and promotion of malignant disease. Cancer Cell  vol. 7, (3) 211-217. 10.1016/j.ccr.2005.02.013

2004

Madhusudan S, Foster M, Muthuramalingam SR, Braybrooke JP, Wilner S, Kaur K, Han C, Hoare S, Balkwill F, Talbot DC, Ganesan TS and Harris AL (2004). A phase II study of etanercept (Enbrel), a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 10, (19) 6528-6534. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0730

Balkwill F and Coussens LM (2004). Cancer - An inflammatory link. Nature  vol. 431, (7007) 405-406. 10.1038/431405a

Scott KA, Arnott CH, Robinson SC, Moore RJ, Thompson RG, Marshall JF and Balkwill FR (2004). TNF-alpha regulates epithelial expression of MMP-9 and integrin alphavbeta6 during tumour promotion. A role for TNF-alpha in keratinocyte migration? Oncogene  vol. 23, (41) 6954-6966. 10.1038/sj.onc.1207915

Hagemann T, Robinson SC, Schulz M, Trümper L, Balkwill FR and Binder C (2004). Enhanced invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines upon co-cultivation with macrophages is due to TNF-alpha dependent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteases. Carcinogenesis  vol. 25, (8) 1543-1549. 10.1093/carcin/bgh146

Jones PH, Christodoulos K, Dobbs N, Thavasu P, Balkwill F, Blann AD, Caine GJ, Kumar S, Kakkar AJ, Gompertz N, Talbot DC, Ganesan TS and Harris AL (2004). Combination antiangiogenesis therapy with marimastat, captopril and fragmin in patients with advanced cancer. Br J Cancer  vol. 91, (1) 30-36. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601897

Balkwill F (2004). Cancer and the chemokine network. Nat Rev Cancer  vol. 4, (7) 540-550. 10.1038/nrc1388

Li NF, Wilbanks G, Balkwill F, Jacobs IJ, Dafou D and Gayther SA (2004). A modified medium that significantly improves the growth of human normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells in vitro. Lab Invest  vol. 84, (7) 923-931. 10.1038/labinvest.3700093

Balkwill F (2004). The significance of cancer cell expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Semin Cancer Biol  vol. 14, (3) 171-179. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2003.10.003

Grimshaw MJ, Hagemann T, Ayhan A, Gillett CE, Binder C and Balkwill FR (2004). A role for endothelin-2 and its receptors in breast tumor cell invasion. Cancer Res  vol. 64, (7) 2461-2468. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-03-1069

Arnott CH, Scott KA, Moore RJ, Robinson SC, Thompson RG and Balkwill FR (2004). Expression of both TNF-alpha receptor subtypes is essential for optimal skin tumour development. Oncogene  vol. 23, (10) 1902-1910. 10.1038/sj.onc.1207317

Balkwill F, Bast RC, Berek J, Chenevix-Trench G, Gore M, Hamilton T, Jacobs I, Mills G, Souhami R, Urban N, Orsulic S and Smyth J (2004). Current research and treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer. A position paper from the Helene Harris Memorial Trust (vol 39, pg 1818, 2003). Eur J Cancer  vol. 40, (4) 628-628. 10.1016/j.ejca.2003.11.005

Szlosarek P and Balkwill F (2004). The inflammatory cytokine network of epithelial cancer: therapeutic implications. Novartis Found Symp  vol. 256, 227-237.

Kulbe H, Levinson NR, Balkwill F and Wilson JL (2004). The chemokine network in cancer - much more than directing cell movement. Int J Dev Biol  vol. 48, (5-6) 489-496. 10.1387/ijdb.041814hk

2003

Robinson SC, Scott KA, Wilson JL, Thompson RG, Proudfoot AEI and Balkwill FR (2003). A chemokine receptor antagonist inhibits experimental breast tumor growth. Cancer Res  vol. 63, (23) 8360-8365.

Madhusudan S, Protheroe A, Propper D, Han C, Corrie P, Earl H, Hancock B, Vasey P, Turner A, Balkwill F, Hoare S and Harris AL (2003). A multicentre phase II trial of bryostatin-1 in patients with advanced renal cancer. Brit J Cancer  vol. 89, (8) 1418-1422. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601321

Szlosarek PW and Balkwill FR (2003). Tumour necrosis factor alpha: a potential target for the therapy of solid tumours. Lancet Oncol  vol. 4, (9) 565-573. 10.1016/S1470-2045(03)01196-3

Balkwill F, Bast RC, Berek J, Chenevix-Trench G, Gore M, Hamilton T, Jacobs I, Mills G, Souhami R, Urban N, Orsulic S and Smyth J (2003). Current research and treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer. A Position Paper from the Helene Harris Memorial Trust. Eur J Cancer  vol. 39, (13) 1818-1827. 10.1016/S0959-8049(03)00511-2

Wall L, Burke F, Barton C, Smyth J and Balkwill F (2003). IFN-gamma induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 9, (7) 2487-2496.

Wall L, Burke F, Barton C, Smyth J and Balkwill F (2003). IFN-? induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Clinical Cancer Research  vol. 9, (7) 2487-2496.

Scott KA, Moore RJ, Arnott CH, East N, Thompson RG, Scallon BJ, Shealy DJ and Balkwill FR (2003). An anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody inhibits the development of experimental skin tumors. Mol Cancer Ther  vol. 2, (5) 445-451.

Karagiannis SN, Wang Q, East N, Burke F, Riffard S, Bracher MG, Thompson RG, Durham SR, Schwartz LB, Balkwill FR and Gould HJ (2003). Activity of human monocytes in IgE antibody-dependent surveillance and killing of ovarian tumor cells. Eur J Immunol  vol. 33, (4) 1030-1040. 10.1002/eji.200323185

Balkwill F (2003). Chemokine biology in cancer. Semin Immunol  vol. 15, (1) 49-55. 10.1016/S1044-5323(02)00127-6

Propper DJ, Chao D, Braybrooke JP, Bahl P, Thavasu P, Balkwill F, Turley H, Dobbs N, Gatter K, Talbot DC, Harris AL and Ganesan TS (2003). Low-dose IFN-gamma induces tumor MHC expression in metastatic malignant melanoma. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 9, (1) 84-92.

Wall L, Burke F, Smyth JF and Balkwill F (2003). The anti-proliferative activity of interferon-gamma on ovarian cancer: in vitro and in vivo. Gynecologic Oncology  vol. 88, (1 Pt 2)

2002

Grimshaw MJ, Naylor S and Balkwill FR (2002). Endothelin-2 is a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor for breast tumor cells. Mol Cancer Ther  vol. 1, (14) 1273-1281.

Scotton CJ, Wilson JL, Scott K, Stamp G, Wilbanks GD, Fricker S, Bridger G and Balkwill FR (2002). Multiple actions of the chemokine CXCL12 on epithelial tumor cells in human ovarian cancer. Cancer Res  vol. 62, (20) 5930-5938.

Grimshaw MJ, Wilson JL and Balkwill FR (2002). Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant: implications for macrophage distribution in tumors. Eur J Immunol  vol. 32, (9) 2393-2400. 10.1002/1521-4141(200209)32:9<2393::AID-IMMU2393>3.0.CO;2-4

Grimshaw MJ, Wilson JL and Balkwill FR (2002). Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant: Implications for macrophage distribution in tumors. European Journal of Immunology  vol. 32, (9) 2393-2400. 10.1002/1521-4141(200209)32:9<2393::AID-IMMU2393>3.0.CO;2-4

Arnott CH, Scott KA, Moore RJ, Hewer A, Phillips DH, Parker P, Balkwill FR and Owens DM (2002). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha mediates tumour promotion via a PKC alpha- and AP-1-dependent pathway. Oncogene  vol. 21, (31) 4728-4738. 10.1038/sj.onc.1205588

Forster MD, Braybrooke J, Madhusudan S, Kaur K, Hoare S, Balkwill F, Ganesan TS, Talbot D and Harris AL (2002). A phase II trial using etanercept, a recombinant tumour necrosis factor antagonist, in metastatic breast cancer. Brit J Cancer  vol. 86, S38-S38.

Wall L, Burke F, Smyth J and Balkwill F (2002). Characterisation of the cell content of malignant ascites in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and clinico-pathological correlations. Brit J Cancer  vol. 86, S45-S46.

Balkwill F (2002). Tumor necrosis factor or tumor promoting factor? Cytokine Growth Factor Rev  vol. 13, (2) 135-141. 10.1016/S1359-6101(01)00020-X

Milliken D, Scotton C, Raju S, Balkwill F and Wilson J (2002). Analysis of chemokines and chemokine receptor expression in ovarian cancer ascites. Clin Cancer Res  vol. 8, (4) 1108-1114.

Wilson J and Balkwill F (2002). The role of cytokines in the epithelial cancer microenvironment. Semin Cancer Biol  vol. 12, (2) 113-120. 10.1006/scbi.2001.0419

Robinson SC, Scott KA and Balkwill FR (2002). Chemokine stimulation of monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-9 requires endogenous TNF-? European Journal of Immunology  vol. 32, (2) 404-412. 10.1002/1521-4141(200202)32:2<404::AID-IMMU404>3.0.CO;2-X

Robinson SC, Scott KA and Balkwill FR (2002). Chemokine stimulation of monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-9 requires endogenous TNF-alpha. Eur J Immunol  vol. 32, (2) 404-412. 10.1002/1521-4141(200202)32:2<404::AID-IMMU404>3.0.CO;2-X

2001

Balkwill F (2001). The science book. Nature  vol. 414, (6866) 849-850. 10.1038/414849a

Scotton C, Milliken D, Wilson J, Raju S and Balkwill F (2001). Analysis of CC chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in solid ovarian tumours. Br J Cancer  vol. 85, (6) 891-897. 10.1054/bjoc.2001.2020

Scotton CJ, Wilson JL, Milliken D, Stamp G and Balkwill FR (2001). Epithelial cancer cell migration: a role for chemokine receptors? Cancer Res  vol. 61, (13) 4961-4965.

Grimsha MJ and Balkwill FR (2001). Inhibition of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis by hypoxia and inflammation - A potential mechanism. Brit J Cancer  vol. 85, 19-19.

Grimshaw MJ and Balkwill FR (2001). Inhibition of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis by hypoxia and inflammation - A potential mechanism. European Journal of Immunology  vol. 31, (2) 480-489. 10.1002/1521-4141(200102)31:2<480::AID-IMMU480>3.0.CO;2-L

Propper DJ, McDonald AC, Man A, Thavasu P, Balkwill F, Braybrooke JP, Caponigro F, Graf P, Dutreix C, Blackie R, Kaye SB, Ganesan TS, Talbot DC, Harris AL and Twelves C (2001). Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of PKC412, an inhibitor of protein kinase C. J Clin Oncol  vol. 19, (5) 1485-1492. 10.1200/JCO.2001.19.5.1485

Balkwill F and Mantovani A (2001). Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet  vol. 357, (9255) 539-545. 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04046-0

Grimshaw MJ and Balkwill FR (2001). Inhibition of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis by hypoxia and inflammation - a potential mechanism. Eur J Immunol  vol. 31, (2) 480-489. 10.1002/1521-4141(200102)31:2<480::AID-IMMU480>3.0.CO;2-L

2000

Jankowski JA, Harrison RF, Perry I, Balkwill F and Tselepis C (2000). Barrett's metaplasia. Lancet  vol. 356, (9247) 2079-2085. 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03411-5

Scott KA, Holdsworth H, Balkwill FR and Dias S (2000). Exploiting changes in the tumour microenvironment with sequential cytokine and matrix metalloprotease inhibitor treatment in a murine breast cancer model. Br J Cancer  vol. 83, (11) 1538-1543. 10.1054/bjoc.2000.1487

Balkwill FR (2000). Re: Possible role of ovarian epithelial inflammation in ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst  vol. 92, (2) 162-163. 10.1093/jnci/92.2.162A

Sica A, Saccani A, Bottazzi B, Bernasconi S, Allavena P, Gaetano B, Fei F, LaRosa G, Scotton C, Balkwill F and Mantovani A (2000). Defective expression of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 receptor CCR2 in macrophages associated with human ovarian carcinoma. J Immunol  vol. 164, (2) 733-738. 10.4049/jimmunol.164.2.733

1999

Balkwill F (1999). TNF biosynthesis in gut associated immunopathologies. Gut  vol. 45, (4) 10.1136/gut.45.4.483

Thavasu P, Propper D, McDonald A, Dobbs N, Ganesan T, Talbot D, Braybrook J, Caponigro F, Hutchison C, Twelves C, Man A, Fabbro D, Harris A and Balkwill F (1999). The protein kinase C inhibitor CGP41251 suppresses cytokine release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 expression in cancer patients. Cancer Res  vol. 59, (16) 3980-3984.

Turner L, Scotton C, Negus R and Balkwill F (1999). Hypoxia inhibits macrophage migration. European Journal of Immunology  vol. 29, (7) 2280-2287. 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199907)29:07<2280::AID-IMMU2280>3.0.CO;2-C

Moore RJ, Owens DM, Stamp G, Arnott C, Burke F, East N, Holdsworth H, Turner L, Rollins B, Pasparakis M, Kollias G and Balkwill F (1999). Mice deficient in tumor necrosis factor-alpha are resistant to skin carcinogenesis. Nat Med  vol. 5, (7) 828-831. 10.1038/10552

Turner L, Scotton C, Negus R and Balkwill F (1999). Hypoxia inhibits macrophage migration. Eur J Immunol  vol. 29, (7) 2280-2287. 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199907)29:07<2280::AID-IMMU2280>3.0.CO;2-C

Burke F, Smith PD, Crompton MR, Upton C and Balkwill FR (1999). Cytotoxic response of ovarian cancer cell lines to IFN-gamma is associated with sustained induction of IRF-1 and p21 mRNA. Br J Cancer  vol. 80, (8) 1236-1244. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6690491

Boyd RS and Balkwill FR (1999). MMP-2 release and activation in ovarian carcinoma: the role of fibroblasts. Br J Cancer  vol. 80, (3-4) 315-321. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6690357

Moore RJ, Owens DM, Stamp G, Arnott C, Burke F, East N, Holdsworth H, Turner L, Rollins B, Pasparakis M, Kollias G and Balkwill F (1999). Erratum: Mice deficient in tumor necrosis factor-? are resistant to skin carcinogenesis (Nature Medicine (1999) 5 (828-831)). Nature Medicine  vol. 5, (9)

1998

Dias S, Boyd R and Balkwill F (1998). IL-12 regulates VEGF and MMPs in a murine breast cancer model. Int J Cancer  vol. 78, (3) 361-365. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19981029)78:3<361::AID-IJC17>3.0.CO;2-9

Dias S, Boyd R and Balkwill F (1998). IL-12 regulates VEGF and MMPs in a murine breast cancer model. International Journal of Cancer  vol. 78, (3) 361-365. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19981029)78:3<361::AID-IJC17>3.0.CO;2-9

Leber TM and Balkwill FR (1998). Regulation of monocyte MMP-9 production by TNF-alpha and a tumour-derived soluble factor (MMPSF). Br J Cancer  vol. 78, (6) 724-732. 10.1038/bjc.1998.568

Negus RP, Turner L, Burke F and Balkwill FR (1998). Hypoxia down-regulates MCP-1 expression: implications for macrophage distribution in tumors. J Leukoc Biol  vol. 63, (6) 758-765. 10.1002/jlb.63.6.758

Dias S, Thomas H and Balkwill F (1998). Multiple molecular and cellular changes associated with tumour stasis and regression during IL-12 therapy of a murine breast cancer model. International Journal of Cancer  vol. 75, (1) 151-157. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980105)75:1<151::AID-IJC23>3.0.CO;2-I

Dias S, Thomas H and Balkwill F (1998). Multiple molecular and cellular changes associated with tumour stasis and regression during IL-12 therapy of a murine breast cancer model. Int J Cancer  vol. 75, (1) 151-157. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980105)75:1<151::AID-IJC23>3.0.CO;2-I

(1998). United Kingdom Co-ordinating Committee on Cancer Research (UKCCCR) Guidelines for the Welfare of Animals in Experimental Neoplasia (Second Edition). Br J Cancer  vol. 77, (1) 1-10. 10.1038/bjc.1998.1

Balkwill F (1998). The molecular and cellular biology of the chemokines. J Viral Hepat  vol. 5, (1) 1-14. 10.1046/j.1365-2893.1998.00081.x

1997

Leber TM and Balkwill FR (1997). Zymography: a single-step staining method for quantitation of proteolytic activity on substrate gels. Anal Biochem  vol. 249, (1) 24-28. 10.1006/abio.1997.2170

Burke F, East N, Upton C, Patel K and Balkwill FR (1997). Interferon gamma induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a model of ovarian cancer: enhancement of effect by batimastat. Eur J Cancer  vol. 33, (7) 1114-1121. 10.1016/S0959-8049(97)88065-3

Negus RP, Stamp GW, Hadley J and Balkwill FR (1997). Quantitative assessment of the leukocyte infiltrate in ovarian cancer and its relationship to the expression of C-C chemokines. Am J Pathol  vol. 150, (5) 1723-1734.

Balkwill F (1997). Cytokine amplification and inhibition of immune and inflammatory responses. J Viral Hepat  vol. 4 Suppl 2, 6-15. 10.1111/j.1365-2893.1997.tb00175.x

1996

Zucker S (1996). Correspondence re: N-B. Liabakk et al., matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) type IV collagenases in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res., 56: 190-196, 1966. Cancer Res  vol. 56, (15)

Burke F, Relf M, Negus R and Balkwill F (1996). A cytokine profile of normal and malignant ovary. Cytokine  vol. 8, (7) 578-585. 10.1006/cyto.1996.0077

Balkwill F (1996). Cytokines in Hemopoiesis, Oncology and Immunology III. British Journal of Cancer  vol. 73, (5) 711-711. 10.1038/bjc.1996.124

Thomas H, Hanby AM, Smith RA, Hagger P, Patel K, Raikundalia B, Camplejohn RS and Balkwill FR (1996). An inbred colony of oncogene transgenic mice: diversity of tumours and potential as a therapeutic model. Br J Cancer  vol. 73, (1) 65-72. 10.1038/bjc.1996.12

Burke F and Balkwill FR (1996). Cytokines in animal models of cancer. Biotherapy  vol. 8, (3-4) 229-241. 10.1007/BF01877209

Negus RP and Balkwill FR (1996). Cytokines in tumour growth, migration and metastasis. World J Urol  vol. 14, (3) 157-165. 10.1007/BF00186895

Liabakk NB, Talbot I, Smith RA, Wilkinson K and Balkwill F (1996). Matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) type IV collagenases in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res  vol. 56, (1) 190-196.

1995

Balkwill F (1995). Making sense. Nature  vol. 378, (6554) 10.1038/378318b0

de Kossodo S, Moore R, Gschmeissner S, East N, Upton C and Balkwill FR (1995). Changes in endogenous cytokines, adhesion molecules and platelets during cytokine-induced tumour necrosis. Br J Cancer  vol. 72, (5) 1165-1172. 10.1038/bjc.1995.481

Thomas H and Balkwill F (1995). Assessing new anti-tumour agents and strategies in oncogene transgenic mice. Cancer Metastasis Rev  vol. 14, (2) 91-95. 10.1007/BF00665793

Burger D and Dayer JM (1995). Inhibitory cytokines and cytokine inhibitors. Neurology  vol. 45, (6 Suppl 6) S39-S43. 10.1212/WNL.45.6_Suppl_6.S39

Negus RP, Stamp GW, Relf MG, Burke F, Malik ST, Bernasconi S, Allavena P, Sozzani S, Mantovani A and Balkwill FR (1995). The detection and localization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human ovarian cancer. J Clin Invest  vol. 95, (5) 2391-2396. 10.1172/JCI117933

Thavasu PW, Ganjoo RK, Maidment SA, Love SB, Williams AH, Malplas JS and Balkwill FR (1995). Multiple myeloma: an immunoclinical study of disease and response to treatment. Hematol Oncol  vol. 13, (2) 69-82. 10.1002/hon.2900130204

Burke F, Knowles RG, East N and Balkwill FR (1995). The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the anti-tumour activity of human interferon-gamma in vivo. Int J Cancer  vol. 60, (1) 115-122. 10.1002/ijc.2910600117

Balkwill F (1995). Tumour necrosis factor in ovarian cancer. Interferons and Cytokines  (26) 6-8.

1994

Naylor MS, Stamp GW, Davies BD and Balkwill FR (1994). Expression and activity of MMPS and their regulators in ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer  vol. 58, (1) 50-56. 10.1002/ijc.2910580110

Balkwill FR (1994). Cytokine therapy of cancer. The importance of knowing the context. Eur Cytokine Netw  vol. 5, (4) 379-385.

Miles D, Thomsen L, Balkwill F, Thavasu P and Moncada S (1994). Association between biosynthesis of nitric oxide and changes in immunological and vascular parameters in patients treated with interleukin-2. Eur J Clin Invest  vol. 24, (4) 287-290. 10.1111/j.1365-2362.1994.tb01087.x

Miles DW, Happerfield LC, Naylor MS, Bobrow LG, Rubens RD and Balkwill FR (1994). Expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) and its receptors in benign and malignant breast tissue. Int J Cancer  vol. 56, (6) 777-782. 10.1002/ijc.2910560603

Thomas H and Balkwill FR (1994). Oncogene transgenic mice as therapeutic models in cancer research. Eur J Cancer  vol. 30A, (4) 533-537. 10.1016/0959-8049(94)90434-0

1993

Philip PA, Rea D, Thavasu P, Carmichael J, Stuart NS, Rockett H, Talbot DC, Ganesan T, Pettit GR and Balkwill F (1993). Phase I study of bryostatin 1: assessment of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha induction in vivo. The Cancer Research Campaign Phase I Committee. J Natl Cancer Inst  vol. 85, (22) 1812-1818. 10.1093/jnci/85.22.1812

Davies B, Waxman J, Wasan H, Abel P, Williams G, Krausz T, Neal D, Thomas D, Hanby A and Balkwill F (1993). Levels of matrix metalloproteases in bladder cancer correlate with tumor grade and invasion. Cancer Res  vol. 53, (22) 5365-5369.

Davies B, Miles DW, Happerfield LC, Naylor MS, Bobrow LG, Rubens RD and Balkwill FR (1993). Activity of type IV collagenases in benign and malignant breast disease. Br J Cancer  vol. 67, (5) 1126-1131. 10.1038/bjc.1993.207

Naylor MS, Stamp GW, Foulkes WD, Eccles D and Balkwill FR (1993). Tumor necrosis factor and its receptors in human ovarian cancer. Potential role in disease progression. J Clin Invest  vol. 91, (5) 2194-2206. 10.1172/JCI116446

Davies B, Brown PD, East N, Crimmin MJ and Balkwill FR (1993). A synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor decreases tumor burden and prolongs survival of mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Cancer Res  vol. 53, (9) 2087-2091.

Taylor-Papadimitriou J and Balkwill F (1993). Cancer. Fusion potential for vaccines. Nature  vol. 362, (6422) 10.1038/362695a0

Burke F, Naylor MS, Davies B and Balkwill F (1993). The cytokine wall chart. Immunol Today  vol. 14, (4) 165-170. 10.1016/0167-5699(93)90280-X

Burke F, Stuart Naylor M, Davies B and Balkwill F (1993). The cytokine wall chart. Trends in Immunology  vol. 14, (4)

Saraya KA and Balkwill FR (1993). Temporal sequence and cellular origin of interleukin-2 stimulated cytokine gene expression. Br J Cancer  vol. 67, (3) 514-521. 10.1038/bjc.1993.96

Balkwill F (1993). Tumour necrosis factor. Improving on the formula. Nature  vol. 361, (6409) 206-207. 10.1038/361206a0

Balkwill F (1993). Cytokines in health and disease. Trends in Immunology  vol. 14, (4) 149-150.

Balkwill F (1993). Improving on the formula. Nature  vol. 361, (6409) 206-207. 10.1038/361206a0

Burke F, Griffin D, Elwood N, Davis C, Stamp G, Rohatiner A, Lister TA and Balkwill F (1993). The effect of cytokines on cultured mononuclear cells from patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol Oncol  vol. 11, (1) 23-33. 10.1002/hon.2900110104

1992

Miles DW, Aderka D, Engelmann H, Wallach D and Balkwill FR (1992). Induction of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors during treatment with interleukin-2. Br J Cancer  vol. 66, (6) 1195-1199. 10.1038/bjc.1992.435

Thavasu PW, Longhurst S, Joel SP, Slevin ML and Balkwill FR (1992). Measuring cytokine levels in blood. Importance of anticoagulants, processing, and storage conditions. J Immunol Methods  vol. 153, (1-2) 115-124. 10.1016/0022-1759(92)90313-I

Naylor MS, Stamp GW and Balkwill FR (1992). Beta actin expression and organization of actin filaments in colorectal neoplasia. Epithelial Cell Biol  vol. 1, (3) 99-104.

Malik ST, East N, Boraschi D and Balkwill FR (1992). Effects of intraperitoneal recombinant interleukin-1 beta in intraperitoneal human ovarian cancer xenograft models: comparison with the effects of tumour necrosis factor. Br J Cancer  vol. 65, (5) 661-666. 10.1038/bjc.1992.141

Malik ST and Balkwill FR (1992). Antiproliferative and antitumor activity of TNF in vitro and in vivo. Immunol Ser  vol. 56, 239-268.

Balkwill FR (1992). Tumour necrosis factor and cancer. Prog Growth Factor Res  vol. 4, (2) 121-137. 10.1016/0955-2235(92)90027-F

1991

Malik ST, Knowles RG, East N, Lando D, Stamp G and Balkwill FR (1991). Antitumor activity of gamma-interferon in ascitic and solid tumor models of human ovarian cancer. Cancer Res  vol. 51, (24) 6643-6649.

Miles DW, Longhurst SJ, Harper PG and Balkwill FR (1991). Toxicity and reconstitution of recombinant interleukin-2 with albumin. Lancet  vol. 338, (8780) 10.1016/0140-6736(91)92770-3

Thomas H and Balkwill FR (1991). Effects of interferons and other cytokines on tumors in animals: a review. Pharmacol Ther  vol. 52, (3) 307-330. 10.1016/0163-7258(91)90030-P

Malik S and Balkwill F (1991). Epithelial ovarian cancer: a cytokine propelled disease? Br J Cancer  vol. 64, (4) 617-620. 10.1038/bjc.1991.372

Kelly SA, Gschmeissner S, East N and Balkwill FR (1991). Enhancement of metastatic potential by gamma-interferon. Cancer Res  vol. 51, (15) 4020-4027.

Stanley LA, Adams DJ, Balkwill FR, Griffin D and Wolf CR (1991). Differential effects of recombinant interferon alpha on constitutive and inducible cytochrome P450 isozymes in mouse liver. Biochem Pharmacol  vol. 42, (2) 311-320. 10.1016/0006-2952(91)90718-K

Lagadec PF, Saraya KA and Balkwill FR (1991). Human small-cell lung-cancer cells are cytokine-resistant but NK/LAK-sensitive. Int J Cancer  vol. 48, (2) 311-317. 10.1002/ijc.2910480226

Malik ST, Martin D, Hart I and Balkwill F (1991). Therapy of human ovarian cancer xenografts with intraperitoneal liposome encapsulated muramyl-tripeptide phosphoethanolamine (MTP-PE) and recombinant GM-CSF. Br J Cancer  vol. 63, (3) 399-403. 10.1038/bjc.1991.92

1990

Naylor MS, Stamp GW and Balkwill FR (1990). Investigation of cytokine gene expression in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Res  vol. 50, (14) 4436-4440.

Miles DW, Bird CR, Wadhwa M, Summerhayes M, Balkwill FR, Thorpe R and Rubens RD (1990). Reconstitution of interleukin 2 with albumin for infusion. Lancet  vol. 335, (8705) 1602-1603. 10.1016/0140-6736(90)91439-H

Malik ST, Griffin DB, Naylor MS, Fiers W, Oliff A and Balkwill FR (1990). The complex effects of recombinant tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) in human ovarian cancer xenograft models. Prog Clin Biol Res  vol. 349, 393-403.

Balkwill FR, Naylor MS and Malik S (1990). Tumour necrosis factor as an anticancer agent. Eur J Cancer  vol. 26, (5) 641-644. 10.1016/0277-5379(90)90097-D

Malik ST, Naylor MS, East N, Oliff A and Balkwill FR (1990). Cells secreting tumour necrosis factor show enhanced metastasis in nude mice. Eur J Cancer  vol. 26, (10) 1031-1034. 10.1016/0277-5379(90)90044-T

Naylor MS, Malik ST, Stamp GW, Jobling T and Balkwill FR (1990). In situ detection of tumour necrosis factor in human ovarian cancer specimens. Eur J Cancer  vol. 26, (10) 1027-1030. 10.1016/0277-5379(90)90043-S

1989

Malik ST, Griffin DB, Fiers W and Balkwill FR (1989). Paradoxical effects of tumour necrosis factor in experimental ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer  vol. 44, (5) 918-925. 10.1002/ijc.2910440529

Balkwill FR, Griffin DB and Lee AE (1989). Interferons alpha and gamma differ in their ability to cause tumour stasis and regression in vivo. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol  vol. 25, (10) 1481-1486. 10.1016/0277-5379(89)90108-9

Balkwill FR and Burke F (1989). The cytokine network. Immunol Today  vol. 10, (9) 299-304. 10.1016/0167-5699(89)90085-6

Balkwill FR (1989). Interferons. Lancet  vol. 1, (8646) 1060-1063. 10.1016/S0140-6736(89)92455-0

Balkwill FR (1989). Tumour necrosis factor. Br Med Bull  vol. 45, (2) 389-400. 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a072330

Ramani P and Balkwill FR (1989). Action of recombinant alpha interferon against experimental and spontaneous metastases in a murine model. Int J Cancer  vol. 43, (1) 140-146. 10.1002/ijc.2910430126

Fiers W and Balkwill FR (1989). Future prospects and problems. Cancer Surv  vol. 8, (4) 921-927.

Kelly SA, Malik ST and Balkwill FR (1989). The relevance of animal tumour models to the preclinical screening of cytokines. Cancer Surv  vol. 8, (4) 741-754.

Stebbings WS, Vinson GP, Farthing MJ, Balkwill F and Wood RF (1989). Effect of steroid hormones on human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts, of known steroid-receptor status, in nude mice. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  vol. 115, (5) 439-444. 10.1007/BF00393333

1988

Balkwill F (1988). Cytokines--soluble factors in immune responses. Curr Opin Immunol  vol. 1, (2) 241-249. 10.1016/0952-7915(88)90008-8

Ramani P and Balkwill FR (1988). Human interferons inhibit experimental metastases of a human melanoma cell line in nude mice. Br J Cancer  vol. 58, (3) 350-354. 10.1038/bjc.1988.217

Fentiman IS, Balkwill FR, Thomas BS, Russell MJ, Todd I and Bottazzo GF (1988). An autoimmune aetiology for hypothyroidism following interferon therapy for breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol  vol. 24, (8) 1299-1303. 10.1016/0277-5379(88)90219-2

Malik S and Balkwill F (1988). The anti-cancer activity of tumour necrosis factor. Ann Inst Pasteur Immunol  vol. 139, (3) 285-288.

Malik S and Balkwill FR (1988). Tumour necrosis factor. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed)  vol. 296, (6631) 10.1136/bmj.296.6631.1214

1987

Ramani P and Balkwill FR (1987). Enhanced metastases of a mouse carcinoma after in vitro treatment with murine interferon gamma. Int J Cancer  vol. 40, (6) 830-834. 10.1002/ijc.2910400621

Balkwill F, Osborne R, Burke F, Naylor S, Talbot D, Durbin H, Tavernier J and Fiers W (1987). Evidence for tumour necrosis factor/cachectin production in cancer. Lancet  vol. 2, (8570) 1229-1232. 10.1016/S0140-6736(87)91850-2

Fentiman IS, Balkwill FR, Cuzick J, Hayward JL and Rubens RD (1987). A trial of human alpha interferon as an adjuvant agent in breast cancer after loco-regional recurrence. Eur J Surg Oncol  vol. 13, (5) 425-428.

Tilles JG, Balkwill F and Davilla J (1987). 2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase and interferon in peripheral blood after rubella, measles, or mumps live virus vaccine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med  vol. 186, (1) 70-74. 10.3181/00379727-186-42586

Balkwill FR, Ward BG, Moodie E and Fiers W (1987). Therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and gamma-interferon in experimental human ovarian cancer. Cancer Res  vol. 47, (18) 4755-4758.

Balkwill FR and Smyth JF (1987). Interferons in cancer therapy: a reappraisal. Lancet  vol. 2, (8554) 317-319. 10.1016/S0140-6736(87)90901-9

Dealtry GB, Naylor MS, Fiers W and Balkwill FR (1987). The effect of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor on growth and macromolecular synthesis of human epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res  vol. 170, (2) 428-438. 10.1016/0014-4827(87)90318-1

Smyth JF, Balkwill FR, Cavalli F, Kimchi A, Mattson K, Niederle NE and Spiegel RJ (1987). Interferons in oncology: current status and future directions. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol  vol. 23, (6) 887-889. 10.1016/0277-5379(87)90298-7

Ward BG, Wallace K, Shepherd JH and Balkwill FR (1987). Intraperitoneal xenografts of human epithelial ovarian cancer in nude mice. Cancer Res  vol. 47, (10) 2662-2667.

Dealtry GB, Naylor MS, Fiers W and Balkwill FR (1987). DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity caused by tumor necrosis factor is enhanced by interferon-gamma. Eur J Immunol  vol. 17, (5) 689-693. 10.1002/eji.1830170517

Adams DJ, Balkwill FR, Griffin DB, Hayes JD, Lewis AD and Wolf CR (1987). Induction and suppression of glutathione transferases by interferon in the mouse. J Biol Chem  vol. 262, (10) 4888-4892.

Balkwill FR, Stevens MH, Griffin DB, Thomas JA and Bodmer JG (1987). Interferon gamma regulates HLA-D expression on solid tumors in vivo. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol  vol. 23, (1) 101-106. 10.1016/0277-5379(87)90426-3

Balkwill FR, Ward BG and Fiers W (1987). Effects of tumour necrosis factor on human tumour xenografts in nude mice. Ciba Found Symp  vol. 131, 154-169.

1986

Rowlinson G, Balkwill F, Snook D, Hooker G and Epenetos AA (1986). Enhancement by gamma-interferon of in vivo tumor radiolocalization by a monoclonal antibody against HLA-DR antigen. Cancer Res  vol. 46, (12 Pt 1) 6413-6417.

Carmichael J, Fergusson RJ, Wolf CR, Balkwill FR and Smyth JF (1986). Augmentation of cytotoxicity of chemotherapy by human alpha-interferons in human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. Cancer Res  vol. 46, (10) 4916-4920.

Balkwill FR and Proietti E (1986). Effects of mouse interferon on human tumour xenografts in the nude mouse host. Int J Cancer  vol. 38, (3) 375-380. 10.1002/ijc.2910380312

Balkwill FR (1986). Interferons: from molecular biology to man. Part 3. Interferons and disease. Microbiol Sci  vol. 3, (9) 281-284.

Balkwill FR, Lee A, Aldam G, Moodie E, Thomas JA, Tavernier J and Fiers W (1986). Human tumor xenografts treated with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alone or in combination with interferons. Cancer Res  vol. 46, (8) 3990-3993.

Balkwill FR (1986). Interferons: from molecular biology to man. Part 2. Interferons and cell function. Microbiol Sci  vol. 3, (8) 229-233.

Balkwill FR (1986). Interferons: from molecular biology to man. Part 1. Genetics and molecular biology of the interferon system. Microbiol Sci  vol. 3, (7) 212-215.

Ramani P, Hart IR and Balkwill FR (1986). The effect of interferon on experimental metastases in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. Int J Cancer  vol. 37, (4) 563-568. 10.1002/ijc.2910370415

Balkwill FR (1986). Animal models for investigating antitumor effects of interferon. Methods Enzymol  vol. 119, 649-657. 10.1016/0076-6879(86)19087-2

1985

Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Balkwill F, Ebsworth N and Rozengurt E (1985). Antiviral and antiproliferative effects of interferons in quiescent fibroblasts are dissociable. Virology  vol. 147, (2) 405-412. 10.1016/0042-6822(85)90142-4

Fentiman IS, Thomas BS, Balkwill FR, Rubens RD and Hayward JL (1985). Primary hypothyroidism associated with interferon therapy of breast cancer. Lancet  vol. 1, (8438) 10.1016/S0140-6736(85)92475-4

Balkwill FR, Goldstein L and Stebbing N (1985). Differential action of six human interferons against two human carcinomas growing in nude mice. Int J Cancer  vol. 35, (5) 613-617. 10.1002/ijc.2910350508

Bye A, Balkwill F, Brigden D and Wilson J (1985). Use of interferon in the management of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Dev Med Child Neurol  vol. 27, (2) 170-175. 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1985.tb03766.x

Padmanabhan N, Balkwill FR, Bodmer JG and Rubens RD (1985). Recombinant DNA human interferon alpha 2 in advanced breast cancer: a phase 2 trial. Br J Cancer  vol. 51, (1) 55-60. 10.1038/bjc.1985.8

Rohatiner AZ, Prior P, Burton A, Balkwill F and Lister TA (1985). Central nervous system toxicity of interferon. Prog Exp Tumor Res  vol. 29, 197-202.

1984

Shearer M, Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Griffin D and Balkwill F (1984). Monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between subspecies of human interferon-alpha and that detect interferon oligomers. J Immunol  vol. 133, (6) 3096-3101.

Balkwill FR and Bokhon'ko AI (1984). Differential effects of pure human alpha and gamma interferons on fibroblast cell growth and the cell cycle. Exp Cell Res  vol. 155, (1) 190-197. 10.1016/0014-4827(84)90780-8

Balkwill FR, Mowshowitz S, Seilman SS, Moodie EM, Griffin DB, Fantes KH and Wolf CR (1984). Positive interactions between interferon and chemotherapy due to direct tumor action rather than effects on host drug-metabolizing enzymes. Cancer Res  vol. 44, (11) 5249-5255.

Balkwill FR and Moodie EM (1984). Positive interactions between human interferon and cyclophosphamide or adriamycin in a human tumor model system. Cancer Res  vol. 44, (3) 904-908.

Borden EC and Balkwill FR (1984). Preclinical and clinical studies of interferons and interferon inducers in breast cancer. Cancer  vol. 53, (3 Suppl) 783-789. 10.1002/1097-0142(19840201)53:3+<783::AID-CNCR2820531329>3.0.CO;2-I

Borden EC and Balkwill FR (1984). Preclinical and clinical studies of interferons and interferon inducers in breast cancer. Cancer  vol. 53, (3 S) 783-789. 10.1002/1097-0142(19840201)53:3+<783::AID-CNCR2820531329>3.0.CO;2-I

1983

Balkwill FR, Griffin DB, Band HA and Beverley PC (1983). Immune human lymphocytes produce an acid-labile alpha-interferon. J Exp Med  vol. 157, (3) 1059-1063. 10.1084/jem.157.3.1059

Rohatiner AZ, Prior PF, Burton AC, Smith AT, Balkwill FR and Lister TA (1983). Central nervous system toxicity of interferon. Br J Cancer  vol. 47, (3) 419-422. 10.1038/bjc.1983.63

McCance DJ, Sebesteny A, Griffin BE, Balkwill F, Tilly R and Gregson NA (1983). A paralytic disease in nude mice associated with polyoma virus infection. J Gen Virol  vol. 64 (Pt 1), 57-67. 10.1099/0022-1317-64-1-57

Balkwill FR, Moodie EM, Freedman V, Lane EB and Fantes KH (1983). An Animal Model System for Investigating the AntiTumor Effects of Human Interferon. Journal of Interferon Research  vol. 3, (3) 319-326. 10.1089/jir.1983.3.319

Rohatiner AZ, Balkwill F and Lister TA (1983). Interferon in acute myelogenous leukaemia: a preliminary report. Haematol Blood Transfus  vol. 28, 56-58.

Rohatiner AZ, Balkwill FR, Malpas JS and Lister TA (1983). Experience with human lymphoblastoid interferon in acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). Cancer Chemother Pharmacol  vol. 11, (1) 56-58. 10.1007/BF00257419

1982

Taylor-Papadimitriou J and Balkwill FR (1982). Implications for clinical application of new developments in interferon research. Biochim Biophys Acta  vol. 695, (1) 49-67. 10.1016/0304-419X(82)90006-3

Balkwill FR, Moodie EM, Freedman V and Fantes KH (1982). Human interferon inhibits the growth of established human breast tumours in the nude mouse. Int J Cancer  vol. 30, (2) 231-235. 10.1002/ijc.2910300217

Silverman RH, Watling D, Balkwill FR, Trowsdale J and Kerr IM (1982). The ppp(A2'p)nA and protein kinase systems in wild-type and interferon-resistant Daudi cells. Eur J Biochem  vol. 126, (2) 333-341. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1982.tb06783.x

Rohatiner AZ, Balkwill FR, Griffin DB, Malpas JS and Lister TA (1982). A phase I study of human lymphoblastoid interferon administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol  vol. 9, (2) 97-102. 10.1007/BF00265387

Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Shearer M, Balkwill FR and Fantes KH (1982). Effects of HuIFN-alpha 2 and HuIFN-alpha (Namalwa) on breast cancer cells grown in culture and as xenografts in the nude mouse. J Interferon Res  vol. 2, (4) 479-491. 10.1089/jir.1982.2.479

1981

Balkwill FH (1981). Extracts from the last century. Mechanical dentistry--on regulation cases by F.H. Balkwill. Br Dent J  vol. 151, (1) 10.1038/sj.bdj.4804620

Hogg N and Balkwill FR (1981). Species restriction in cytostatic activity of human and murine monocytes and macrophages. Immunology  vol. 43, (1) 197-204.

Rohatiner A, Balkwill F, Malpas JS and Lister TA (1981). A phase I study of human lymphoblastoid interferon in patients with hematological malignancies. Haematol Blood Transfus  vol. 26, 63-67.

Rohatiner AZS, Balkwill F, Malpas JS and Lister TA (1981). A phase I study of intravenous human lymphoblastoid interferon (HLBI). Proceedings of The American Association For Cancer Research  vol. Vol. 22,

1980

Sebesteny A, Tilly R, Balkwill F and Trevan D (1980). Demyelination and wasting associated with polyomavirus infection in nude (nu/nu) mice. Lab Anim  vol. 14, (4) 337-345. 10.1258/002367780781071021

Balkwill F, Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Fantes KH and Sebesteny A (1980). Human lymphoblastoid interferon can inhibit the growth of human breast cancer xenografts in athymic (nude) mice. Eur J Cancer  vol. 16, (4) 569-573. 10.1016/0014-2964(80)90237-6

Balkwill F, Taylor Papadimitriou J, Fantes KH and Sebesteny A (1980). HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTOID INTERFERON CAN INHIBIT THE GROWTH OF HUMAN BREAST CANCER XENOGRAFTS IN ATHYMIC [NUDE] MICE. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences  vol. 350, (1) 591-592. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb20671.x

1979

Balkwill FR and Oliver RT (1979). Remission in acute myeloblastic leukaemia. Lancet  vol. 2, (8149) 961-962. 10.1016/S0140-6736(79)92658-8

Balkwill FR and Hogg N (1979). Characterization of human breast milk macrophages cytostatic for human cell lines. J Immunol  vol. 123, (4) 1451-1456.

Balkwill FR (1979). Interferons as cell-regulatory molecules. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy  vol. 7, (1) 7-14. 10.1007/BF00205403

1978

Balkwill F, Watling D and Taylor-Papadimitriou J (1978). Inhibition by lymphoblastoid interferon of growth of cells derived from the human breast. Int J Cancer  vol. 22, (3) 258-265. 10.1002/ijc.2910220307

Balkwill F and Taylor-Papadimitriou J (1978). Interferon affects both G1 and S+G2 in cells stimulated from quiescence to growth. Nature  vol. 274, (5673) 798-800. 10.1038/274798a0

1977

Balkwill FR and Oliver RT (1977). Growth inhibitory effects of interferon on normal and malignant human haemopoietic cells. Int J Cancer  vol. 20, (4) 500-505. 10.1002/ijc.2910200405

Franks CR, Bishop D, Balkwill FR, Oliver RT and Spector WG (1977). Growth of acute myeloid leukaemia as discrete subcutaneous tumours in immune-deprived mice. Br J Cancer  vol. 35, (5) 697-700. 10.1038/bjc.1977.107

Balkwill FR, Franks CR, Oliver RT and Spector WG (1977). Neoplastic macrophages grown from human leukaemic monocytes. J Pathol  vol. 122, (1) 13-26. 10.1002/path.1711220104

1976

Balkwill FR and Oliver RT (1976). Diagnostic and prognostic significance of peripheral blood cultural characteristics in adult acute leukaemia. Br J Cancer  vol. 33, (4) 400-410. 10.1038/bjc.1976.65

Balkwill FR and Oliver RT (1976). Morphological characterisation of adult acute leukaemia in short-term liquid culture. Recent Results Cancer Res  (56) 87-90.

1974

Balkwill F, Pindar A and Crowther D (1974). Factors influencing microculture in leukaemia cells. Nature  vol. 251, (5477) 741-742. 10.1038/251741a0

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